Timeline: The Conquest and Settlement of Ireland under Oliver Cromwell

Time Event
1641 (Oct) Outbreak of the Ulster rebellion
1641 (Dec) Reports of massacres of Protestant settlers (1641 Depositions)
1642 (March) Adventurer’s Act to raise money using forfeited Irish land as security
1642 (Aug) Outbreak of the English civil war King v Parliament
1642 (Oct) Confederate Association established in Kilkenny
1643 (Sept) Truce between confederates and royalists
1644 (March) Beginning of peace talks between confederates and royalists
1644 (Oct) English parliamentary ordinance legitimises execution of Irish prisoners
1645 (June) Decisive battle of the first English civil war at Naseby
1646 (May) King Charles surrenders – end of the first English civil war
1646 (Aug) Confederates reject peace treaty with royalists
1647 (June) English parliament gains control of Dublin
1648 (April) Confederate civil war erupts
1648 (Aug) Second English civil war
1649 (Jan) Second peace treaty between confederate and royalists
1649 (Jan) Execution of King Charles by parliament
1649 (Aug) Oliver Cromwell arrives in Ireland
1649 (Sept) Massacre at Drogheda
1649 (Oct) Massacre at Wexford
1650 (May) Cromwell returns to England
1650-1652 The most destructive period of the war in Ireland
1652 (Aug) Act of Settlement passed at Westminster
1653 (April) Last formal surrender of the war in Ireland
1653 (June) Order for land surveys to be conducted
1653 (July) Order for transplantation to Connacht
1653 (Sept) Act of Satisfaction passed by English parliament
1653 (Dec) Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
1653-1654 Gross Survey
1654 Civil Survey
1654 (Dec) Order for the Down Survey
1655-1658 Down Survey conducted
1658 (Sept) Death of Oliver Cromwell
1659-1660 ‘1659’ Census
1660 (May) Restoration of Charles II
1660 (Nov) King’s ‘Gracious Declaration’ confirms Cromwellian land settlement
1662-1669 James Butler, duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant
1661-1665 Meeting of Irish Parliament
1662 Act of Settlement
1663-1664 Court of Claims
1665 Act of Explanation
1666-1669 Second Court of Claims