The People of Upper Canada

It has often been observed that in Ontario, as well as in almost every other new colony, the early settlers located, as a rule, in groups or clusters according to nationality or religious creed. In the course of a journey through the province one comes upon groups of English, Scots, Irish, French, Germans, etc. The particular nationality or creed in each case determines the characteristic traits of the group — traits which persist through several generations, notwithstanding the leveling tendencies of modern life. 1

The following lists give, by counties, such settlements or groups of the original rural population of Ontario as can be set down in tabular form. The urban portion of our population is too mixed to be amenable to analysis of this kind; the only observable law in this case is that the population of each town or city is mainly recruited from the rural districts in its neighborhood.

It has been deemed advisable to adopt the old division of the frontier portion of the province into eleven districts, because it was the division in use during the first half of the nineteenth century, a period in which the number of immigrants was very large. It is, accordingly, the scheme of division found in tables of statistics of that period, many of which will be useful in connection with this inquiry.

Following this scheme of division the population of Ontario for the years 1817 [Gourlay’s Statistics, vol. I, p. 139] and 1825 is given as follows:

District

1817
Gourlay

1825
Fothergill

 Eastern

 12,700

 16,524

 Ottawa

 1,500

 2,580

 Bathurst

 ——

 10,309

 Johnstown

 9,200

 15,266

 Midland

 14,853

 27.316

 Newcastle

 5,000

 9,966

 Home

 7,700

 17,942

 Gore

 6,684

14,225

 Niagara

 12,548

19,090

 London

8,907

17,351

 Western

4,158

7,162

 Total

83,950

157,731

The portion of the province not included in the above scheme of division is divided into eight districts: Haliburton, Muskoka, Parry Sound, Nipissing, Algoma, Manitoulin Island, Thunder Bay and Rainy River.

The list of settlers for the Eastern District is first given, and those for the other districts follow in order proceeding westward, because in a general way the order of settlement was from east to west. For geographical reasons it was natural that the east should contain the oldest settlement, though the frontier at Niagara was occupied almost as soon as the east.

In this province, as elsewhere, names of political and religious significance are often the most convenient for the designation of the various groups.

Absolute accuracy is not claimed for the numbers and locations of these groups. The lists, however, are substantially correct, except that in some cases they may be incomplete. The date of settlement is sometimes given approximately, and sometimes there is given an approximation to the number of original families in each group.

Societies for the study of local history, as well as individuals, can accomplish good work by making additions to these lists, by furnishing accurate dates of settlement and the numbers of families in the various
groups. The compiler will be pleased to receive such amendments from anyone who will take the trouble to write to him.

Besides the groups given in the schedules many localities were wholly or partially settled by migrations from earlier occupied parts of the province.

In the counties of Victoria, Ontario, Simcoe, York, Wellington, Waterloo and Oxford (in other words, the central portion of the province), the population is very complex, including not only many nationalities and creeds, but also differing widely as to their race origin. If I may be permitted to express an opinion of the relative merits of settlements, I should say the least progressive peoples are found where there has been the least mixture. Where settlers of a kind are bunched together, they retain old customs more tenaciously ; and there is something to be said in favor of Colonel Talbot s whim in connection with his settlement of Howard Township (Kent County), which he peopled on the checkerboard plan, or alternately, so that no two settlers of the same nationality should be side by side.

But little information can be gleaned from census reports since 1861 bearing on the question of the national origins of the earliest settlers, and even the earlier reports are useful only in connection with {182}the largest or most prominent settlements. I have therefore relied chiefly upon other sources. It would be difficult to cite book, newspaper and personal authorities from whom information was obtained in the preparation of these lists. Tins would take up nearly as much space as the tables themselves, and would supply no new facts. But several persons have been kind enough to revise my notes of particular districts, each for the district with which he was best acquainted, and I wish to acknowledge my obligations for these services. These correspondents, in various parts of the province, have been: C. C. James, for the easterly districts; George E. Laidlaw, for Victoria County; David Boyle, for Wellington County and contiguous territory; Jas. H. Coyne, for the Lake Erie frontier; A. C. Osborne, for the Nipissing District; Frank Yeigh, for the Rainy River District.

The most striking feature of our ethnography is the rapid inter-mixture of peoples. Accordingly the question of mixed races will be the most difficult to any one who wishes to analyse the population scientifically. But the intermixture is never so great that the original groups cannot be discerned, even after three or four generations.

Besides the white races, there are two others that should not be omitted:

(1) The various Indian bands whose statistics I have derived from the report for the year ending June, 1898.

(2) Several settlements of negroes.

For the clearing up of many problems in the heredity of mixed races, endless examples may be found in Ontario, and the student of anthropology can there find a rich field for investigation.

EASTERN DISTRICT

Glengarry County

Groups of Immigrants     Townships where settled
French-Canadians Lancaster, Charlottenburg, Lochiel.
Scots (Highland Catholics – in 1782.The original settlement consisted of 85 Macdonalds and 35 Grants.Some Highland Protestants also settled in these townships. Lancaster, Charlottenburg, Lochiel, Kenyon.
Irish (Catholics) Kenyo

Stormont County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Cornwall, Roxborough, Finch.
Scots (Highland) Cornwall, Roxborough, Finch.
Irish (Catholics) Cornwall, Osnabruck, Roxborough, Finch.
U. E. Loyalists (Dutch and Germans from Schoharie, N. Y.) – settled about 1784. Cornwall.
U. E. Loyalists (Germans) – settled about 1784. Osnabruck.

Dundas County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Irish Williamsburg, Matilda, Winchester, Mountain.
U. E. Loyalists (chiefly Dutch and Germans) – settled in 1784 and later years Williamsburg, Matilda.

 

OTTAWA DISTRICT

Prescott County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Hawkesbury (East and West), Longueuil, Alfred, Plantagenet.
Irish (Catholics) E. Hawkesbury, Plantagenet.

Russell County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Clarence, Cumberland, Cambridge, Russell.
Irish Clarence, Cumberland, Russell.

 

BATHURST DISTRICT

Carleton County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Gloucester.
Scots (from the central counties of Scotland, in 1826) Osgoode, Torbolton, Fitzroy.
“Perth Military Settlement” (chiefly Scots, in 1816) Goulbourn.
Irish (Protestants from the north of Ireland) Gloucester, Osgoode, Nepean, Marlborough, Goulbourn, March, Huntley, Fitzroy.
Irish (Catholics) Huntley, Goulbourn.

Lanark County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (25 families at first; isolated, and now speaking English) Lavant.
Scots (“Perth Military Settlement,” in 1816) Beckwith, Drummond, Bathurst, Burgess.
Scots (Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire weavers. About 1832 many left their rocky land grants in Dalhousie and went to Simcoe Co. and other westerly counties) Ramsay, Lanark, Dalhousie.
Scots (Perthshire) Montague, Beckwith, North Elmsley, Drummond.
Scots (from the eastern borders of Scotland) Ramsay, Pakenham.
Irish (Protestants from the north of Ireland) Montague, North Elmsley, Ramsay, Pakenham, Beckwith.
Irish (Catholics) Drummond, Bathurst, Burgess.
U. E. Loyalists (a few along the Rideau River) Montague, North Elmsley.

Renfrew County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Scots (Highland, the “McNab Settlement.” Formed about 1823. McNab, Horton, Ross.
Scots (Lowland, small settlement) Bromley.
Irish Bagot, Admaston, Ross, Bromley, Westmeath, Grattan, Wilberforce.
Germans (settled chiefly in the sixties) Horton, Bromley, Pembroke, Grattan, Wilberforce, Alice, Sebastopol, North Algona, Brudenell, Raglan.
Poles (small settlement in Hagarty Township) P. O. Wilno.
Indians (Algonquins of North Renfrew; population 286) Allumette Island and vicinity.
Indians (Algonquins of Golden Lake; population 91) Algona

 

JOHNSTOWN DISTRICT

Grenville County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Augusta.
U. E. Loyalists (settled in 1784 and later years) Edwardsburgh, Augusta, Oxford, Wolford.

Leeds County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Elizabethtown.
Irish (Protestants) Bastard.
Irish (Catholics) Kitley, South Elmsley, Crosby (North and South).
U. E. Loyalists (settled in 1784 and later years) Elizabethtown, Yonge.
U. S. settlers (later) Escott

 

MIDLAND DISTRICT

Frontenac County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Irish (Catholics) Pittsburgh, Loughborough, Kingston, Wolfe Island.
U. E. Loyalists (settled in 1784 and later years) Pittsburgh, Kingston.

Lennox and Addington County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Kaladar, Anglesea.
Irish (Catholics), 1825 and later Amherst Island, Ernestown, Camden, Sheffield.
Germans (from the Renfrew settlement) Denbigh, Abinger.
U. E. Loyalists (These came almost entirely from the State of New York, Dutchess and adjacent counties along the Hudson and Mohawk rivers. They were of mixed blood, but almost all had some Dutch and some German Palatine, settled in 1784 and later years) Ernestown, Adolphustown, Fredericksburgh, Richmond.
Quakers (from Dutchess County, New York, 1790) Adolphustown.

Hastings County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Elzevir, Hungerford.
English Thurlow, Sydney, Rawdon, Madoc.
Irish (Protestants). Extensive settlement. Thurlow, Sydney, Hungerford, Huntingdon, Madoc, Marmora.
Irish (Catholics) Rawdon, Tudor.
U. E. Loyalists (Extensive settlement. In 1784 and succeeding years). Thurlow, Sydney.
Indians (Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte; population 1,228). Tyendinaga.

Prince Edward County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Hallowell, Marysburgh.
Irish (Protestants), from County Down. All the townships, but Hallowell chiefly.
Irish (Catholics) Athol, Hillier.
U. E. Loyalists (Germans) settled in 1784 and succeeding years. Sophiasburgh, Hallowell, Ameliasburgh.
Discharged Hessian soldiers Marysburgh. Forty families, most of whom afterwards left.
Quakers (from Long Island and Dutchess County, N. Y., and from Pennsylvania) Hillier, Hallowell.

 

NEWCASTLE DISTRICT

Peterborough County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Asphodel, Otonabee, Smith, Douro, Dummer.
Scots Asphodel, Otonabee, Smith.
Irish (Protestants) Asphodel, Otonabee, North Monaghan, Smith, Douro, Dummer.
Irish (Catholics), Peter Robinson’s, in 1824 [sic – 1825] Smith, Ennismore [Douro, Emily].
Indians (Mississaugas, population 164) Mud Lake.
Indians (Mississaugas, population 79) Rice Lake.

Northumberland County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (many of them were retired military officers, 1820-35) Haldimand, Hamilton.
Scots Haldimand, Hamilton.
Irish Haldimand, Hamilton, Percy, Seymour, Murray.
U. S. Settlers (1798-1812, from New York, Pennsylvania and New England States) Haldimand, Hamilton.
Indians (Mississaugas, population 228) Alnwick.

Victoria County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Somerville, Bexley, Eldon.
English Bexley, Eldon, Fenelon, Mariposa.
Scots (Highland. Protestants. Extensive settlement) Somerville, Bexley, Fenelon, Verulum, Mariposa, Emily.
Scots (Lowland) Somerville, Verulum (a few), Mariposa.
Irish (Protestants) Somerville, Bexley, Fenelon, Verulum, Mariposa, Emily.
Irish (Catholics) Emily, Verulum, Bexley, Laxton, Digby, Longford.
Irish (Catholics). Extensively. Ops, Eldon, Carden.

Durham County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Darlington.
Cornish Clarke, Hope.
Scots (Highland) Clarke, Darlington.
Irish (Protestants) Cartwright, Manvers, Cavan, Darlington, Clarke, Hope.

 

HOME DISTRICT

Ontario County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (Extensive settlement) Pickering, Uxbridge, Reach, Brock.
English (from Cornwall) Whitby.
Scots (Lowland) Pickering, Whitby.
Scots (Highland. Protestants. Begun in 1831) Thorah, Brock, Reach.
Scots (Highland. Catholics. This group has sometimes been called “Jacobites” in historical literature relating to the district). Mara.
Irish (some Irish Palatines in Brock) Mara, Brock, Reach, Pickering.
Settlers from the United States. (Dutch and Quakers. These arrived at about the same time as their companions in Markham Township, viz. about 1805). Pickering, Whitby.
Indians (Chipewas, population 236) Rama.
Indians (Mississaugas, population 38) Scugog.

York County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (20 families) Georgina, North Gwillimbury, East Gwillimbury.
English (from the west of England in 1820) Vaughan, Markham.
English (from other counties of England at a later date) Etobicoke, York, King, Whitchurch, Scarboro, East Gwillimbury.
Scots (from Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, in 1800) Scarboro.
Scots (Highland) Vaughan, King, Markham, York.
Scots (from Annandale, Dumfriesshire, in 1840) Vaughan.
Irish (from the north of Ireland) Etobicoke, York, Scarboro, Vaughan, Markham, King, Whitchurch, East Gwillimbury.
Germans (Berczy’s 60 families, in 1794) Markham.
French (Royalists. Twenty families, in 1798) King and Whitchurch (along Yonge Street, the boundary between the two townships).
Settlers from New York State, in 1800. Many of these subsequently were formed into a religious sect, the followers of one David Wilson, and known as “Davidites”) East Gwillimbury.
Quakers (from Pennsylvania, chiefly in 1805, though 40 families came in 1800) King, Whitchurch.
Pennsylvania Dutch (in 1805) York, Vaughan, Markham.
Mennonists or Tunkers Whitchurch (on Yonge Street).
Negroes (a few) Vaughan, King, York, Etobicoke.
Indians (Chipewas, population 124) Georgina and Snake Islands.

Simcoe County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (begun in 1828) Tiny, Tay.
English (from northern counties of England. Begun in 1820). Oro and Vespra. (25 families at first), Medonte, Tecumseth, West Gwillimbury.
Scots (from Sutherlandshire at first. Immigrants with Lord Selkirk’s Red River colonists. Seventeen families, about 1820, located here) West Gwillimbury.
Scots (from Islay, Argyleshire. Begun in 1832) Oro and Nottawasaga chiefly, and a few families of the same migration into Medonte, Orillia, Sunnidale.
Scots (Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire, via Dalhousie Township, Ont., in 1832. Many Glasgow and Paisley weavers were among these) Innisfil, Essa.
Scots (Dumfriesshire; 1832 to 1850) Innisfil.
Irish (begun in 1830. Protestants. From Ulster. Extensive settlement) West Gwillimbury, Tecumseth, Innisfil, Essa, Tossorontio.
Irish (Catholics, begun in 1830) Adjala, Vespra, Flos, Medonte, Nottawasaga.
Irish (from Londonderry in 1850, etc) Innisfil.
Germans (begun with 10 families, in 1834) Nottawasaga.
Negroes (Begun in 1828) Oro (20 families), Sunnidale.
Indians (Chippewas; population 266) Beausoleil and Christian Islands.

Peel County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (from northern counties of England). Caledon, Chinguacousy, Albion, Toronto, Toronto Gore.
Scots (Highland, begun in 1818) Chinguacousy, Caledon, Toronto.
Irish (from the North of Ireland, Protestants. Extensive settlement) Caledon, Toronto, Albion, Chinguacousy.

Grey County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Bentinck, Egremont, St. Vincent.
Scots (Lowland) Normanby, Egremont.
Scots (Highland) Bentinck, Glenelg.
Irish (from the North of Ireland, Protestants. Extensive settlement) Artemesia, Bentinck, Collingwood, Sullivan, Holland, Normanby.
Germans Bentinck, Normanby.
Negroes (a few) Sydenham, Euphrasia, Bentinck, Normanby.

Dufferin County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Scots East Garafraxa.
Irish (Protestants, from Ulster. Extensive settlement) Mulmur, Mono, Amaranth, Melancthon, East Luther.
Negroes (a few) Melancthon.

 

GORE DISTRICT

Wentworth County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Ancaster, Barton, Binbrook, Beverley, Flamboro’, Glanford, Saltfleet.
Scots (Lowland) Flamboro’, Ancaster, Binbrook, Beverley.
Irish Ancaster, Barton, Beverley, Flamboro’, Saltfleet.
U. E. Loyalists. (Some Dutch or Germans from New Jersey) Ancaster, Beverley.
Germans (from the United States) Glanford, East Flamboro’.
Negroes Barton.

Halton County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Esquesing, Nelson, Trafalgar.
Scots (Highland. Presbyterians) Esquesing, Trafalgar, Nelson, Nassagaweya.
Scots (Begun in 1819, from the border districts of Scotland; also a few from Barnet, Vt. Part of Esquesing is called the “Scotch Block”) Esquesing.
Irish (from the North of Ireland) Esquesing, Nassagaweya, Nelson, Trafalgar.

Waterloo County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians North Waterloo, Wilmot.
English Wellesley.
Scots (Highland via Caledonia, N. Y.) North Dumfries, Woowich, South Waterloo, Wellesley.
Scots (Lowland) North Dumfries.
Irish Wellesley.
Germans (Begun in 1826. Extensive. Part of this settlement is called the “Amisch” Settlement, having been made up of Ami, the chief seceder of a religious sect. Waterloo (North and South), Wilmot, Wellesley, Woolwich.
Mennonists (in 1801) Waterloo.
Pennsylvania Germans (in 1806) Waterloo.
Settlers from the United States. Hon. Wm. Dickson’s (Shade’s) settlement in 1816 North Dumfries.
Negroes Wellesley.

Brant County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Brantford, Burford.
Scots (Highland) South Dumfries.
Scots (border districts) South Dumfries, Brantford.
Irish Brantford.
Indians (Six Nations; total population, 3,929) Onondaga, Tuscarora.

Wellington County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (from Norfolk, Suffolk and Yorkshire) Erin, Eramosa, Guelph, Puslinch, W. Garafraxa, Peel, Pilkington.
North Welsh and Cornish Pilkington.
English and Scots (via Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1818 and subsequent years) Eramosa.
Scots (Paisley weavers) in 1827 Guelph.
Scots (Aberdeenshire) Minto, Arthur, Nichol, W. Garafraxa, Erin.
Scots (Midlothian) Guelph, Nichol.
Scots (Highland. One settlement from Badenoch, Inverness, another from Loch Broom, Rossshire, and a large settlement from Argyleshire) Puslinch (extensively).
Irish Arthur (extensively), Eramosa, Erin, Garafraxa, Guelph, Maryborough, Puslinch, Peel (extensively).
Germans (Lutherans) Guelph, Pilkington, Puslinch.
Germans (Catholics) Puslinch.
Pennsylvania Dutch Puslinch.
Negroes (a few) Peel.

The townships of Maryborough, Peel and adjacent townships were popularly called “The Queen’s Bush,” and were settled in the fifties and sixties chiefly by settlers from older parts of Ontario.

 

NIAGARA DISTRICT

Haldimand County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (including many military and naval officers) Dunn, Cayuga (North and South), Rainham, Walpole.
Irish (Catholics) Dunn, Canboro, North Cayuga, Oneida, Seneca, Walpole.
U. E. Loyalists Walpole, Seneca, North Cayuga, Oneida.
Germans (from Pennsylvania) Rainham.
Indians (Mississaugas who removed from River Credit, Ont., population, 246) Oneida.

Welland County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Stamford, Thorald, Wainfleet.
Irish (Catholics) Thorald, Humberstone, Stamford.
U. E. Loyalists (1780-1790) Bertie (145 families at first; Crowland, 80; Humberstone, 100; Pelham, 120; Stamford, 140; Thorold, 100; Wainfleet, 115; Willoughby, 60.
Germans Humberstone, Bertie, Willoughby.
Negroes (a few) Bertie, Stamford, Willoughby.

Lincoln County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Grantham.
Irish (Catholics) Grantham.
Germans Gainsborough.
U. E. Loyalists Louth, Niagara.
Butler’s Rangers (in 1784) Niagara, 250 families; Grantham, 200.
Mennonists Louth.

 

LONDON DISTRICT

Perth County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (few) Logan, Ellice.
English (Devon and Cornwall) Blanshard, Downie, Fullerton.
Scots Blanshard, Downie, Fullerton, Hibbert, Logan, Elma, Mornington, North Easthope.
Irish Blanshard, Downie, Hibbert, Ellice, North Easthope, Mornington, Elma, Wallace.
Swiss (small settlement) Easthope (North and South).
Germans (from Waterloo County) Easthope (North and South), Ellice, Fullerton, Logan.
Alsatians (few) Downie.

Bruce County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Scots (mainly from Argyleshire) Huron, Kinloss, Culross, Kincardine, Greenock, Bruce, Saugeen, Elderslie.
Irish Arran, Brant.
Irish (Catholics) Culross, Carrick.
Germans (Catholics) Culross, Carrick.
GermansSome of the Port Elgin first settlers (Saugeen Township) were Germans from Waterloo. Brant, Carrick.
Indians (Chippewas; population, 357) Saugeen.
Indians (Chippewas; population 398) Nawash.

Oxford County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (Lincolnshire) Blenheim, Blandford, East Zorra, Oxford, Dereham.
Scots (Protestant). Sutherlandshire, etc., but many here are also from the Hebrides, e.g. Uist., and are therefore called “Uisters”. The latter are Catholics in religion. The initial Highland settlement in Zorra consisted of 150 families. Blenheim, Blandford, Zorra (East and West), and East Nissouri.
Irish Dereham.
Settlers from the United States (begun in 1793) Blenheim.
Quakers (from the United States). Extensive settlement. Norwich.
Germans East Zorra, Blenheim.
Negroes South Norwich.

Huron County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English (Devonshire). There is also a small settlement of English from Wiltshire in Colborne Township. Hullet, Stephen, Usborne.
Scots (both Highland and Lowland) Goderich, Colborne, Ashfield, McKillop, Grey, Stanley, Tuckersmith.
Irish (both Protestants and Catholics) Ashfield, Goderich, McKillop, Wawanosh.
Germans Howick, Hay, Stephen.

Huron and Perth counties formed what was known as the “Huron Tract”. It was settled by the Canada Company, beginning in 1827.

Elgin County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Bayham, Malahide, Southwold.
Scots (Highland. Those in Aldborough were from Lord Selkirk’s Red River band) Aldborough, Dunwich, Southwold, Yarmouth, South Dorchester.
Irish Dunwich, Southwold, Yarmouth.
Settlers from the United States Bayham, Malahide, Yarmouth (South) (also a few of the first settlers in the south of Dunwich).
Pennsylvania Dutch Malahide.
Germans (mostly Evangelical Lutherans) Aldborough

The “Talbot” Settlement was the general name given to the territory in which Elgin County is situated. In the formation of this settlement Colonel Talbot arranged that Howard Township (Kent County) should be settled alternately on the checker-board plan, so that settlers of the same nationality should not receive farms side by side.

Norfolk County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Woodhouse, Townsend, Walsingham.
Irish Walsingham, Woodhouse.
Germans (Protestants, from Wirtemberg, 80 families came in 1847) Middleton.
U. E. Loyalists, about 1793 Woodhouse, Charlotteville, Walsingham.

This is what was known as the “Long Point Settlement”. Many came from New Jersey.  See Ontario Historical Society, Papers and Records, No. 2.

Middlesex County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Lobo, Westminster, McGillivray, North Dorchester, London.
Scots (Highland, mostly Presbyterian. Extensive settlement) Lobo, Williams, London, Ekfrid, Mosa, Caradoc, Westminster, West Nissouri, North Dorchester.
Irish (Catholics) Biddulph, McGillvray, London, Nissouri.
Settlers from Genesee, N. Y. (about 1830) Williams.
Pennsylvania Dutch North Dorchester.
Indians (Chippewas, population, 447) Caradoc.
Indians (Munsees of the Thames, population, 120) Caradoc.
Indians (Oneidas, population, 808) Delaware.

 

WESTERN DISTRICT

Essex County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (about 1750) Anderdon, Maidstone, Sandwich, Malden, Rochester, West Tilbury.
English (from the northern counties of England) Maidstone, Mersea, Gosfield.
Negroes Colchester, East Sandwich.
Indians (Wyandottes) – These are said to be the old Tobacco Nation from Georgian Bay. They have chiefly moved to the Western States, leaving a population of only ten. Anderdon.

Kent County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians (from the Province of Quebec, about 1837) Dover, East Tilbury.
English (Northern counties) Romney, Harwich, Howard, Orford.
Scots (Lowland) Camden, Chatham, Harwich, Howard, Orford.
Scots (Selkirk’s “Baldoon” Highlanders in 1803; 110 persons) Dover.
Settlers from the United States (mostly from Pa., of German origin) Raleigh.
Negroes (two settlements) Raleigh, Camden.
Indians (Moravians of the Thames; population 354) Orford.
Indians (Chippewas; population 624) Walpole Island.
Indians (Pottawattamies; population 181) Walpole Island.

Lambton County

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
English Bosanquet, Plympton.
Scots (Selkirk’s Highlanders) Sombra.
Scots (Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire and Perthshire, about 1833) Sarnia, Plympton, Moore.
Irish Moore, Plympton, Warwick.
Negroes (two settlements) Raleigh, Camden.
Indians (Chippewas; population 446) Bosanquet, Sarnia.

In Sarnia Township there was a settlement on the Owen System, “of having all things common,” the system received its name from Robert Owen, the apostle of co-operation.

 

THE NEW DISTRICTS OF ONTARIO

Haliburton

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Lutterworth, Minden.
English Lutterworth.

An English land company obtained a block of townships in Haliburton for settlement. These consisted of Guilford, Harburn, Bruton and the six townships lying immediately north of these. Here, however, as elsewhere throughout the province, the bulk of settlers moved from parts settled earlier.

Muskoka

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Baxter, Gibson, Freeman.
Settlers from older parts of Ontario In all the townships.
Indians (Iroquois and Algonquins, from Oka, Quebec; population 125) Gibson.

Parry Sound

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Wallbridge and five adjacent townships, Nipissing, Himsworth.
Germans (Catholics) Gurd, Nipissing, Himsworth.
Swiss In the same.
Settlers from older parts of Ontario In nearly all the townships, though sparsely in many.
Indians (Ojibways of Lake Huron) Parry Island, population 103; Shawanaga, population 110; Magnetewan, population 70; Henvey’s Inlet population 199).

Nipissing

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Papineau, Calvin, Bonfield, Ferris, McKim, Blezard.
French-Canadians (repatriated under Father Paradis, from the Western States) Caldwell, Kirkpatrick, Hugel.
English (chiefly via older townships) Calvin.
Scots (Highland) via older townships Ferris.
Germans Ferris.
Swedes Ratter, Dunnet (near Warren Station).
Poles (miners) Broder, McKim.
Finns (miners) McKim.
Indians (Ojibways) Lake Nipissing population 200; Temagamingue population 78; Dokis’ Rserve, French River population 79; Tagawinini band, Lake Wanapitae population 160.

Algoma

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Rayside, Balfour, Snider, Graham, Hallam, Rutherford (Killarney), Spanish River, Mississauga Thessalon. Also at Chapleau station and other points along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Germans (an offshoot from the Renfrew settlement) Balfour, Dowling, Creighton.
Settlers from older parts of Ontario In many townships, though sparsely.
Indians (Ojibways of Lake Huron) Point Grondin population 61; White Fish River population 35; Spanish River pop. 690; Serpent River pop. 118; Mississauga River pop. 168; Thessalon River pop. 196; Garden River pop. 439; Batchewana Bay pop. 353).

Manitoulin Island

Settlers from older parts of Ontario make up the chief portion of the white population.

 

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
Indians (Ojibways and Ottawas) Wikemikong pop. 999; Wikwemikongsing pop. 122; Shebuiandah pop. 94; South Bay pop. 63; Sucker Creek pop. 93; West Bay pop. 324; Sheshegwaning pop. 171; Cockburn Island pop. 56.

 

Thunder Bay

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians White River, Schreiber and other points along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Settlers from older parts of Ontario Sparsely in various townships.
Cornish and Norwegian (miners) Port Arthur.
Indians (Ojibways of Lake Superior) Micipicoten and Big Heads pop. 332; Long Lake pop. 289; Pie River pop. 211; Pays Plat pop. 46; Lake Nepigon pop. 465; Red Rock pop. 193; Fort William pop. 245.

Rainy River

Groups of Immigrants Townships where settled
French-Canadians Rat Portage, Norman and other points along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Also a settlement at Pine River, near Lake of the Woods.
Settlers from older parts of Ontario Almost exclusively taken up the agricultural lands along the Rainy River. These have come from Bruce, Grey, Simcoe and Ontario counties, and Muskoka, and are English, Scotch or Irish.
Scandinavian (miners) Rat Portage (Sultans Gold Mine). The miners in this district consist chiefly of foreign elements, but these are as yet transitory.
Indians (Chippewas and Saulteaux of Treaty No. 3) Hungry Hall pop. 58; Long Sault pop. 99; Manitou Rapids pop. 123; Little Forks pop. 46; Coutcheeching pop. 137; and other Reserves. (For latest census returns see Indian Report).

 

 

  1. Excerpted from A. F. Hunter, “The Ethnographical Elements of Ontario,” Ontario History, vol. iii (1901), pp. 180-199.