Fenianism in Bandon

check Catholic University of America, the O’Mahony Papers – http://archives.lib.cua.edu/findingaid/fenian.cfm

Also The Fenian Brotherhood Collection at the Washington Research Library Consortium – http://doc.wrlc.org/handle/2041/108343

From O’Donovan Jeremiah Rossa (1813-1915), Rossa’s Recollections

I will here leap some years ahead, to record my recollection of one St. John’s eve that I was in Ross. It was in the year 1858.
James O’Mahony of Bandon wrote to me that he wished to meet me to have a talk over Irish national affairs. He suggested that St. John’s eve in Ross would be a good place, as crowds of people would be there, and we would escape any prying notice. We met there that day. We had our talk, and then we walked toward the Abbey field. The blind and the halt and the lame were there, in every path and passage way, appealing for alms — appealing mostly in the Irish language. We stood behind one man who was sitting down, his bare ulcerated legs stretched out from him. His voice was strong, and his language was beautiful. O’Mahony said he never heard or read anything in the Irish language so beautiful. Taking his notebook and pencil to note down the words of the appeal, some traveling companion of the cripple’s told him that a man was taking notes, and the cripple turned round and told us to go away. He wouldn’t speak any more until we went away.

This James O’Mahony was a draper in Bandon ; he was the brother of Thaddeus O’Mahony who was a professor of the Irish language in Trinity College, Dublin. He went to Australia in the year 1863. I hope he is alive and happy there. With him went another comrade of mine, William O’Carroll, who kept a bakery in North Main Street, Cork. They were among the first men in the South of Ireland that joined the Stephens’ movement. It was James O’Mahony that first gave James Stephens the name of Seabhac ; shonk; hawk. The Shouk shoolach — the walking hawk — was a name given in olden days to a banned wanderer. Stephens, at the start of this organization, traveled much of Ireland on foot. A night he stopped at my house in Skibbereen, I saw the soles of his feet red with blisters.
This is a long leap I have taken in the chapter of “from the cradle to the weaning ” — a leap from 1831 — the year I was born — to 1858, the year I first met James Stephens. So I will have to leap back now, and talk on from my childhood. [pp. 9 – 10]

The Irish people learn through oral tradition what many people learn from book history. Before I ever read a book, before I ever went to school, I got into my mind facts of history which appeared incredible to me. I got into my mind from the fireside stories of my youth that’ the English soldiers in Clonakilty, conven-ient to where I was born, used to kill the women, and take the young children, born and unborn, on the points of their bayonets, and dash them against the walls, and that the soldiers at Bandon Bridge used to tie men in couples with their hands behind their backs, and fling them into the river.

Those very two atrocious acts are, I find, in Daniel O’Connell’s “Memoirs of Ireland,” recorded this way:
“1641. At Bandon Bridge they tied eighty-eight Irishmen of the said town back to back, and threw them off the bridge into the river, where they were all drowned.— Coll. p. 5.”

“County Cork, 1642. At Cloghnakilty about 238 men, Women and children were murdered, of which number seventeen children were taken by the legs by soldiers, who knocked out their brains against the walls. This was done by Phorbis’s men and the garrison of Bandon Bridge.” [p. 16]

James Stephens came to Skibbereen one day in the summer of 1858. He had a letter of introduction from Jas. O’Mahony, of Bandon, to Donal Oge — one of our members. He initiated Donal Oge (Dan McCartie) into the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood. Donal Oge initiated me the next day; I initiated Patrick J. Down- ing and Morty Moynahan the following day ; and so, the good cause spread.
In three or four months, we had three or four baro- nies of the southwest of Cork County organized ; Donal Oge, Morty Moynahan and I became three centres of three circles. We had drillings at night in the woods and on the hillsides ; the rumblings, and ru- mors of war were heard all around ; the government were becoming alarmed ; they made a raid upon our homes on the night of December 8, and the second day after, some twenty of us were prisoners in the county jail in the city of Cork. [p. 150]

When James Stephens came to Skibbereen in May, 1858, and started the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood, we commenced to work in that line of labor, and we were not long working, when a great change was noticeable in the temper of the people. In the cellars, in the woods, and on the hillsides, we had our men drilling in the nighttime, and wars and rumors of wars were on the wings of the wind. The lords and the landlords were visibly becoming alarmed. No wonder, for their tenants who used to flock to Tenant-Right meetings cared very little about attending such meetings now. It has been said — it is said to-day by some men of the cities, that the farmers were opposed to the movement. I could not say that; I could say to the contrary, because I enrolled into the movement many of the most influential farmers in the parishes of Kilcoe, Aughadown, Caheragh, Drimoleague, Diinagh, Kil- macabea, Myross and Castlehaven. Dan McCartie and Morty Moynahan, two other “Centres” did the same. [pp. 199 – 200]

About the beginning of the year 1861, a letter from Jas. O’Mahony, of Bandon, announced to us that he and John O’Mahony would be in Rosscarbery on a certain day. Dan McCartie, Morty Moynahan and I went to Ross in Moynahan’s coach. We met then; they had come to town in Banconi’s long car. James O’Mahony returned to Bandon, and John O’Mahony came on to Skibbereen in our coach. He remained in town a few days. We called in from the country some of the most active workers we had in the organization, and introduced them to him. He was very much taken with the McCarthy-Sowney Centre, who told him he would not be satisfied with getting back his lauds from the English, without getting back also the back rents that the robber-landlords had been drawing from his people for the past two hundred years.

That was the first time I met John O’Mahony. He made the impression on me that he was a man proud of his name and of his race. And I liked him for that. I like to see an Irishman proud of his people. It is seldom you will find such a man doing anything that would disgrace any one belonging to him. In my work of organizing in Ireland, I felt myself perfectly safe in dealing with men who were proud – no matter how poor they were — of belonging to the “Old Stock.” I trusted them, and would trust them again.

Three years ago, in the summer of 1804, I was traveling with Michael Cusack, John Sarsfield Casey (since dead), and some others, by the Galtee Mountains, from Mitchelstown to Knocklong. We stopped at a village called Kilbehenny. We strolled into the graveyard,and there I saw a large tomb, on the top slab of which were cut the words:

“THIS IS THE TOMB OF THE O’MAHONYS.”

That was the tomb of John 0’Mahony’s family. Some days after, I stood within the walls of the ruins of Muckross Abbey in Killarney, and there I saw an- other tomb (just like the one in Kilbehenny) on which were graven the words:

“THIS IS THE TOMB OF THE O’DONOGHUES.

That was the tomb of the family of the O’Donoghue of the Glens. That showed me that in old Irish times John O’Mahony’s family had the same standing among the people as the other family. In those graveyards, I thought of that Shane O’Neill of Tyrone who, when offered an English title, said he was prouder of the title of “The O’Neill” than of any title England could give him. [pp. 235 – 236]

The Remains of the Manchester Martyrs

From http://www.manchester-family-history-research.co.uk/new_page_26.htm

WHAT DID HAPPEN TO THE REMAINS OF THE PRISONERS EXECUTED AT MANCHESTER?

THERE has been speculation as to what happened to the remains of the Manchester Martyrs and the other prisoners executed at Manchester. Various sources say one thing, others say something different. I have  been trying to piece together the accurate facts that are available. I have reached the following conclusions.

Only six executions took place at the New Bailey Prison: James Burrows, August 25th 1866; The Manchester Martyrs, 23rd November 1867; Miles Weatherill and Timothy Faherty, April 4th 1868. All the remains of these men were buried inside the walls of the New Bailey Prison. This was widely reported  in the Press.

The first man to be executed at Strangeways Prison was Michael James Johnson 29th March 1869.

In early 2008 I discovered a miscellaneous document (MISC518) relating to the history of the New Bailey Prison. By the fact that it is a miscellaneous document there is no knowledge of the author. It can be dated post 1881. One thing for certain is that the person was quoting from an article in the Manchester Guardian dated June 1867 regarding the opening of the New Bailey Prison, as can be read here. The document also includes the following passage.

The site of this vast gaol covering many acres was several years ago (1881) absorbed by the Lancashire + Cheshire (sic) Railway Company. And the rugged stones of the building itself used in forming a new wall at Peel Park Salford but it has subsisted long enough to have housed against their will more than one generation [of] notable prisoners amongst whom stand out conspicuously the three Fenians executed on top of  the New Bailey Wall in 1867 for a fatal attack on a prison van. It is said on authority that when the ground was to be cleared, the coffins of the buried prisoners were smuggled out of the gaol at eleven in the forenoon, hidden under [a] pile of mattresses, to be re-interred at the new county prison, a list being appended of the exact moment of their transfer had been know”.

I think that this possibly happened in June 1867, when the prisoners were being transferred to Strangeways over a four day period. It may have occurred a little later when the cells were being cleared.

According to my research a total of 100 people were executed at Stangeways Prison plus the six executed at the New Bailey would make a total of 106 sets of remains being buried in the grounds. So it would seem that the bodies of the Manchester Martyrs lay in the ground of Strangeways Prison from 1868 until about 1991. What happened after 1991 has not been entirely clear.

After the 1990 riot at Strangeways, the prison had to be extensively renovated. During the renovation it was necessary to exhume the remains of the prisoners executed there and those executed at the New Bailey Prison and re-inter them elsewhere. I subsequently discovered that there were two separate exhumations. This fact does not seem to be widely known.

I have been able to have access to the Grave, Burial and Cremation registers for Blackley Cemetery. The Grave Register shows that two plots were purchased by the Governor of HMP Strangeways. The first entry for grave number C2711 shows that 60 caskets of cremated remains were buried in this plot in 1991. The second entry for plot number C2710 shows that 51 caskets of cremated remains were buried in 1993.

The Burial Register shows that on 7th February 1991 60 “Unspecified Fenian Remains ” were buried in plot number C2711. On 7th April 1993 the register shows that 51  “Unspecified Fenian C/ remains” were buried in plot number 2710.

This seemed a little strange to me as there were only three Manchester Martyrs who were executed in November 1867. I then sought out the former Prison Chaplain of HMP Strangeways who said prayers along with at least one other minister at the first interment. He informed me that he was given a list of the names to read out of the people who were re-interred in plot C2711 and the first names were “The Manchester Martyrs”. This did not agree with the information in the Grave and Burial Registers.

I paid another visit to Blackley Cemetery to inspect the Cremation Registers for 1991 and 1993. Over a period of a few days before 7th February 1991, I noted that 60 sets of remains with the address of HMP Strangeways were cremated. Of these 45 were named and fifteen were entered as “un-named fenian”. I recognised many of the names entered in the register, but the names of the six executed at the New Bailey Prison were not included. These remains were interred in plot C2711.

Plots C2710 (left) and C2711 at Blackley Cemetery, the resting place of the Manchester Martyrs
Plots C2710 (left) and C2711 at Blackley Cemetery, the resting place of the Manchester Martyrs – credit Gerard Lodge

The Cremation Register for 1993 shows that over a period of a few days prior to 7th April 1993, 53 sets of remains were cremated. All of these remains had the address HMP Strangeways and all were named. The Register also shows that the ashes of two sets of remains were strewn in specified areas of the cemetery as opposed to being placed in plot C2710.

That gives a total of 113 sets of remains that were removed from Strangeways Prison. As I stated earlier, my research suggests that there should only have been 106 sets of remains buried there. Could it be that prisoners who died while serving their sentences were buried in Strangeways? There is also the question of there being 15 “un-named fenians”. It may be safe to assume that three of them are the Manchester Martyrs and three are the other prisoners executed at the New Bailey Prison. So who were the other nine? On what evidence were they all deemed to be “un-named fenians”?

In an attempt to throw some light onto this subject I made a Freedom of Information request via the Data Access & Compliance Unit. The Ministry of Justice sent me a photocopied list of the details of those buried at Strangeways Prison and also a map of the burial sites. The information it contained was tabulated in the following  form:

MANCHESTER

NO OF GRAVE NAME DATE OF INTERMENT FILE NO DEPTH OF GRAVE REMARKS
1,2,3,and4 Fenians
5 John Aspinall Simpson 23-11-1881

On examining the burial records from Strangeways Prison some of my previous questions have been answered. It appears that this document was a transcription of an earlier record. One of the entries was omitted and reference was made to it in the remarks column. Only three people appear to have compiled the register, which covers a period from 1881 to 1964. Some of the dates of interment seem to have been transcribed incorrectly. There were 33 separate graves. The bodies from graves 13 to 16 were removed to grave 33 in 1965 to facilitate the erection of a new gate.

The first thing to note is that, only the names, or in some cases initials, are entered from November 1881 onwards. The first entry in the register is shown above. The first name to be recorded is that of John Aspinall Simpson. He was executed on 28th November 1881 (not the 23rd as appears in the register). He was the tenth person to be executed at Strangeways Prison. The number of remains buried at Strangeways can summarised as follows:

Executed at the New Bailey Prison 1866-1868 6
Executed at Strangeways Prison1868-1964 100
Executed at Knutsford Prison 1866-1912 8
Total 114

The bodies from Knutsford Prison were re-interred at Strangeways on 23rd November 1928. It was announced on 16th October 1915 that it would cease to be a criminal prison although it continued to be used to house conscientious objectors, and perhaps other military prisoners until the end of the war. It was demolished in the 1930’s.

The men executed at Knutsford Prison were:

NAME DATE OF EXECUTION
Owen M’Gill February 22nd 1886
Thomas Bevan August 16th 1887
Richard Davis April 8th 1890
Felix Spicer August 22nd 1890
William Hancocks August 9th 1905
Edward Hartigan November 27th 1906
James Phipps November 12th 1908
John Williams March 19th 1912

The grave register also reveals that one set of remains were exhumed from Strangeways Prison  on 6th December 1966 and returned to relatives thus:

No of bodies exhumed and located in Plot C2710 60
No of bodies exhumed and located in Plot C2711 51
No of bodies exhumed and located elsewhere in Blackley 2
Previously exhumed in 1966 1
Total 114

There are ninety one names on the list plus the eight from Knutsford, that gives a total of ninety nine. That is a shortfall of fifteen names, which can easily be explained. The first nine executed at Strangeways were not named, likewise the six executed at the New Bailey. A total of fifteen, exactly the same number as “un-named fenians”. To the best of my knowledge, the other 12 members of this group were convicted of murders that were not related to the Irish problem. Certainly some of them were Irish and at least one had Fenian sympathies, but how this group became to be known as the Fenians, may well never be discovered.

The 15 “un-named fenians” can be named as follows:

NAME DATE OF EXECUTION
James Burrows August 25th 1866
William O’Meara Allen (William Phillip Allen) November 23rd 1867
William Gould (Michael O’Brien) November 23rd 1867
Michael Larkin November 23rd 1867
Miles Weatherill April 4th 1868
Timothy Faherty, April 4th 1868
Michael Johnson March 29th 1869
Patrick Durr December 26th 1870
Michael Kennedy December 30th 1872
William Flanagan, alias Robinson December 21st 1876
John M’Kenna March 27th  1877
George Pigott February 4th 1878
James McGowan November 19th1 878
William Cooper May 20th 1879
William Cassidy February 17th 1880

 

 

PLOTS C2710 (left) AND C2711 AT BLACKLEY CEMETERY THE RESTING PLACE OF THE MANCHESTER MARTYRS AND

THE MAJORITY OF THE OTHER PRISONERS EXECUTED AT MANCHESTER INCLUDING EIGHT REMAINS FROM KNUTSFORD PRISON

SEE THE MANCHESTER COLLECTION HERE

Those Manchester and Salford Prison records that have survived can be seen on line.

Since writing the above I have learned that there were in fact several cases in which the remains of the executed prisoners were returned  to their families in this period without a pardon having been granted.  I am most grateful to a gentlemen from Finland who put me on the correct tract. When the Act of Parliament, Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965, which temporarily suspended the Death Penalty for an experimental period of five years, was passed 1965 it also repealed The Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868 which had required, wherever possible,  the burial of executed prisoners’ remains to be buried within  prison walls. The 1965 Act also repealed another eight Acts  amongst other things relating to the Army, Navy and Air Force. In essence this new Act permitted the reburial of executed prisoners after December 1965. It has also been suggested to me that the above case would not have been reviewed by the Home Secretary. The crime and trial took place in Wales and therefore any review may  have been undertaken by the Welsh Secretary. I got this  I believed that the Ministry of Justice was the ultimate source for this case.

This is a letter I received from a former member of the staff of Strangeways. I have reproduced it here as I feel that it contains some important (if gory) historical facts. I have edited some parts of the letter.

Hi Gerard,

 I was a Prison Officer at Strangeways in the late 60s – I was also involved using my trade as a T/A in the Works Dept.

I remember well the digging up of Harris and because he was a fairly recent burial where no quicklime was used only major bones remained.

We also had to dig up the remains of 13 bodies to make way for a future new Prison entrance as concrete could not be laid over prison graves in case relatives wanted them removed for reburial.

This was the result of the then Home Secretary Roy Jenkins allowing an Irish martyr to be dug up and sent back to Ireland. [This refers to the repatriation of the remains of Roger Casement that were exhumed from the grounds of Pentonville Prison.]

The remains we had to dig up were ages old and the boxes had been filled with quicklime which because they were buried close to the 26foot high prison wall and the Manchester high rainfall had caused the quicklime to slake so helping to preserve the remains, resulting in a pretty horrendous job plus we had a Home Office walla trying to identifying remains and two Priests wanting to say words over various remains, it was a very nasty job and because the boxes had collapsed on top of each other we ended up building a large coffin and placing all the remains in it and reburying it.

In 1967  I along with another Officer T/A  was given the job of dismantling the hanging shed and associated structures on the end of B2 landing, the job had to be done during silent hours,  away from public gaze and all pieces of equipment rendered unrecognisable, as we were not allowed to enter from B2 landing we had to use the outside door, so imagine after signing for the key we tried to enter the shed at night. The door was overgrown with weeds and was difficult to open but eventually in we went, located  the light switch and found ourselves underneath the floor and trapdoors of the shed, to our left was a wooden staircase which we climbed finding ourselves in the shed itself. Immediately in front was the large lever which operated the trap, above was a massive pitchpine beam which was supported each side of the shed, the beam had with 3 lynch positions and fittings, the leaves of the trap were about 10 feet long and each leaf about 3 feet wide thickness about 4 inches.

The lever operated a series of flat bars the ends of which engaged in the ends of the left hand side leaf retaining it in the horizontal position and supporting the right leaf by way of a half housing or rebate, using this design the minimum amount of mechanics was required and so was more  reliable.

Directly under the centre lynch position was a large chalked “T” positioned centrally across the rebate/join of the leaves left over from the last hanging at Strangeways of Owen Evans at 8.00am 13 August 1964 at the same time at Walton Prison Liverpool Peter Allen Evans partner in crime was also topped.

Explaining the chalked T on the trap, the inmate in the condemned cell across the landing had his/her hands secured and was then  double (raced  across the landing and onto the trap, the feet being positioned either side of the T with the toes against the T and ankles secured, the hood/pillowcase positioned over the head along with the noose, a nod from the assistant to the hangman and job complete…[Edit]

Needless to say 41 years later I still have the safety pin from the trap lever and the centre lynchpin-TUT TUT.

The 3 cells knocked into one condemned cell was returned to 3 single cells but could not be used for 1 or 2 years (can’t remember which) quaint rules!! And the “reception cell” opposite likewise.

Yes on top of the beam once we had got it down was an inscription saying it was erected in 1944, you mention double hangings, they would be hard enough but triple hangings would be a nightmare as it involves gratings across the trap so Officers can stand and “support” inmates safely.

A couple of thoughts, re the 3 Fenians, in the Works Yard was a stone paving slab engraved the 3 Fenians, whether they were reburied there was another question.

Trivia: A bloke called Marwood, cobbler, executioner and Crown Officer invented the “Long Drop” in 1871 which led the way to the present now deleted quickest/most humane method of execution.

Catch you later,

                      AP

The Prison Records of the Manchester Martyrs

From http://www.manchester-family-history-research.co.uk/new_page_17.htm – accessed 20141225

THE PRISON RECORDS OF THE MANCHESTER  MARTYRS AND THEIR ASSOCIATES AND OTHER RELATED MATTERS

ON THE 26th November 2007, Gerard Lodge made the most significant discovery of his life when he came upon the New Bailey Prison records of the twenty-six men who were charged with the murder of Charles Brett.

Lodge has transcribed the full register entries for the main accused – including William P Allen – and extracts for the others:

579 William Gould. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death. Age: 30. Ht: 5 ft 8 1/2. Complexion, Hair and Eyes: Fresh , Lt brown, Grey.  Occupation: Clerk. Where Born: New York, America. Last or Usual Residence: 72 Clopton St, Hulme. Religion: RC. Education R(eads) + W(rites) well. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Cut over right eyebrow small cut 2nd finger left hand. If in any other prison: Liverpool Assizes December 1866 for possession of fire arms. Acquitted. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed of: Executed Nov 23rd 1867.

580 William O’Mara Allen. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death. Age: Last April 19 6/12. Ht: 5 ft 91/2. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Pale, Brown, Grey. Trade or Profession: Joiner. Where Born: Near Thurles, Tipperary. Last or Usual Address: 101 Sudell St, Manchester. Religion: RC. Education: R + W well. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Cut on left cheek bone, cut top of nose, cut on 2nd finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Executed Nov 23/67.

581 Edward Shore. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death: Commuted to Penal Servitude for Life. Age 27. Ht: 5ft 8ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Dk Brown, Grey. Occupation: Hawker. Where Born: County Cork. Last or Usual Address: Clopton St, Hulme. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp(erfect). Married with no children.. Irish. Wt in: 11st 4lbs. Wt Out: 11st Olbs. Marks etc: Cut on right eyebrow, cut left of upper lip, cut on left thumb. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 24/67 Removed to Millbank.

582 Michael Larkin. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death. Age: 30. Ht: 5ft 51/2. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Pale, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Tailor. Where Born: Parson Town, King’s County. Last or Usual Address: 12 Eliza St, Hulme. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Married. Four Children. Irish. Marks etc: Large scar under left jaw, small scar under right jaw, cut 4th and 5th fingers left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Executed Nov 23/67.

583 Charles Moorhouse. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 23. Ht: 5ft 3ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Lt Brown, Hazel. Occupation: Clerk. Where Born: city of Dublin. Last or Usual Address 6 Menai St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Well. Married. 2 children. Irish. Marks etc: Eyebrows meet. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed:  Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank.

584 Patrick Kelly (Galway). When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 35. Ht: 5ft 31/2 ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Black, Hazel. Occupation: Potato dealer. Where Born: Athenry, Galway Last or Usual Address: Bengal St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: N(il). Married. 2 children. Irish. Marks etc: 2 blue dots under left eye, scar right of chin, cut 5th finger of right hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 9/67.

585 Michael McGuire. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 32. Ht: 5ft 8ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Shopkeeper. Where Born: Kilkearn (sic), Galway. Last or Usual Address: 40 Smithfield Market, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Married. 2 children. Marks etc: Scar left of forehead, cut over right eyebrow, cut end of 2nd & 3rd fingers left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 9/67.

586 John Martin.  When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age:34. Ht: 5ft 101/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Cooper. Where Born: St Michael’s, Dublin. Last or Usual Address: Varley St, Miles Platting, Newton Heath. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Married. 2 children. Irish. Marks etc: lost 3 upper teeth, cut corner right eye, scar bridge of nose, cut on 2nd finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 9/67.

587 John Brannon. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 40. Ht: 5ft 81/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Black, Grey  Occupation: Clothes Dealer. Where Born: Roscommon. Last or Usual Address: Cable St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R . Married. 4 children. Irish. Wt in: 11st 5lbs. Wt Out: 11st 5lbs. Marks etc: Lost 2 upper front teeth, slightly pockpitted, cut back of right hand. If in any other Prison since last Committal here: 2 years at city gaol 6 or 7 years ago. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank.

588 John Francis Nugent. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 22. Ht: 6ft 0ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Fresh, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Joiner. Where Born: Drogheda, Louth. Last or Usual Address: 68 Buckley St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Hollow scar centre of forehead, two cut on two fingers left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 12/67

589 William Martin. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 35. Ht: 5ft 71/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Fresh, Red, Hazel. Occupation: Clerk. Where Born: City of Dublin. Last or Usual Address: Varley St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W well. Married.  6 children. Irish. Marks etc: cut centre of forehead, cut inside right hand When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 12/67.

590 John Carroll. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 24. Ht: 5ft 9ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Fresh, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Labourer. Where Born: Danefort, Kilkenny. Last or Usual Address: 2 Bradleys Buildings, Naylor St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: N. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Large scar right cheek, mole right of mouth, mole under left eye. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank.

591 Michael Jos Boylan. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester.  Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 34. Ht: 5ft 5ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Greyish, Grey. Occupation: Schoolmaster. Where Born: Aughnamullen, Monaghan. Last or Usual Address: 69 Syndall St, Ardwick. Religion: R C. Education: R + W well. Married.  0 children. Irish. Marks etc: Cut on right eyebrow, cut ball of thumb. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov9/67

592 Michael Kennedy. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Acquitted. Age: 28. Ht: 5ft 53/4ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Dk Brown, Hazel.  Occupation: Cane Dresser. Where Born: Tarmonbarry, Roscommon. Last or Usual Address: 96 Clarendon St, Hulme. Religion: R C. Education: R. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Red natural mark on right cheek. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 12/67

593Thomas Maguire (soldier in the Royal Marines). When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death (Nov 13th 1867 Recd Free pardon from the Secretary of State). Age: 31. Ht: 5ft 61/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Brown, Grey.  Occupation: Soldier. Where Born: Kings Court, Cavan. Last or Usual Address: 42 Greengate, Salford. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Blue cut left of forehead in hair, blue ring third finger left hand, anchor on right arm + bracelet on wrist. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Discharged Nov 13/67 having received a free pardon from Secretary of state.

594 Henry Wilson. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Acquitted. Age: 27. Ht: 5ft 8ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Brown, Grey.  Occupation: Clothes Dealer. Where Born: city of Dublin. Last or Usual Address: 50 Smithfield Market, Manchester. Religion: Ch (C of E). Education: R + W Imp. Married. 1 child. Irish. Marks etc: Small mole back of right hand, cut 5th finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 9/67.

595 John Bacon. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 40. Ht: 5ft 5ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Sallow, Dk brown, Grey. Occupation: Shoemaker. Where Born: Faughuitown (sic),Westmeath. Last or Usual Address: 29 Cable St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp . Married. 0 children. Irish. Marks etc: Left foot deformed, cut on 3rd finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 9/67

596 Patrick Coffey. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 27. Ht: 5ft 4ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Pale, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Joiner. Where Born: Ballinasloe, Roscommon. Last or Usual Address: Bonsall St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Wt In: 8St 7lbs. Wt Out: 8St 7lbs. Marks etc: 5th finger right hand crooked, cut 2nd finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 12/67

597 Thomas Ryan. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 30. Ht: 5ft 7ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Pale, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Fustian Stiffener. Where Born: Salford, Lancs. Last or Usual Address: Brown Cross St, Salford. Religion: R C. Education: R. Married. 3 children. English. Marks etc: Cut back of right hand, cut over left eyebrow. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 7/67.

598 Thomas Scalley. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 22. Ht: 5ft 5ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Fresh, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Tailor. Where Born: Loughglyn, Roscommon.  Last or Usual Address: Chapel St, Salford. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Large scar near right temple, very large eyebrows. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank

599 Timothy Featherstone. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester.  Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 20. Ht: 5ft 8ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Sallow, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Shoemaker. Where Born: Limerick.  Last or Usual Address:15 Cook St, Salford. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Married. 0 children. Irish. Wt In: 10St O lbs. Wt Out: 10St 0lbs. Marks etc: 2 cuts 2nd finger left hand, scar back of right hand, small mole right of nose. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 removed to Millbank.

600 William Murphy. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 25. Ht: 5ft 8ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Dk Brown, Grey.  Occupation: Shoemaker. Where Born: Menagh, Tipperary. Last or Usual Address: 42 Hardman St, Manchester. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: 2 cuts on left thumb, small mole back of right hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank.

601 Thomas Johnson. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 5th 1867 R. Knowles Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester.  Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 30. Ht: 6ft 1ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Brown, Grey.  Occupation: Labourer. Where Born: County Mayo. Last or Usual Address: Fleet St, Ashton Religion: R C. Education: N . Married. 0 children. Irish. Marks etc: Blind of left eye, blue scar right of forehead. Register Number in Next Case: 4992. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 7/67

The others were listed as follows:

699 Daniel Redden. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 16th 1867 R. Fowler Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: 5 years Penal Servitude + 2 years Hard Labour to be concurrent. Age: 25. Ht: 5ft 81/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes:  Fresh, Brown, Grey. Occupation: Plasterer. Where Born: Kingstown, Dublin. Last or Usual Address: Crawford St, Tythebarn St, Liverpool Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Pockpitted, blue cross top of left thumb, anchor top of right thumb. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 16/67 Removed to Millbank.

670 Jas O’Brennan Chambers. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 16th 1867 R. Fowler Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 29. Ht: 5ft 91/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Dk Brown, Grey.  Occupation: Joiner. Where Born: Town and County Wexford. Last or Usual Address: Clifton St, Liverpool. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Married. 1  child. Irish. Marks etc: Lost a[ll] front upper teeth, scar on right arm, cut 2nd finger left hand,  small scar centre of forehead. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed: Nov 7/67.

671 William Brophy. When Received and by Whom:  Oct 16th 1867 R. Fowler Esq. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Discharged No Evidence Offered. Age: 26. Ht: 5ft 91/2ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, brown, Grey. Occupation: Porter. Where Born: Thurles, Tipperary. Last or Usual Address: Chadwick St, Liverpool. Religion: R C. Education: R + W Imp. Single. Irish. Marks etc: Small mole left of neck, small mole right of neck, small mole right arm, cut 3rd finger left hand. When Discharged or Otherwise Disposed:  Nov 12/67.

 

William P Allen - Entry in New Bailey Prison Register
William P Allen – Entry in New Bailey Prison Register – credit Gerard Lodge

 

1249 Wm Pherson Thompson. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester .Sentence: Death. Commuted to Penal Servitude for life. Age: 28. Ht: 5ft 8 1/2. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Sallow, Lt Brown, Grey. Occupation: Hawker. Where Born: Greenock, Scotland. Last or Usual Residence: No Settled Residence. Religion: RC. Reading and Writing: Imp. Wt In: 9st 3lbs. Wt Out:9st 1lb. Marks etc: Mole under right jaw. April 1st removed to Millbank.

1927 Patrick Melody. Offence and Where Committed: Having on the 18th September 1867 feloniously wilfully & with malice aforethought killed & murdered one Charles Brett at Manchester. Sentence: Death. Commuted to Penal Servitude for life. Age: 24. Ht: 5ft 9ins. Complexion, Hair, Eyes: Fresh, Sandy, Grey. Occupation: Coach Trimmer. Where Born: City of Dublin. Last or Usual Address: 161 Stanhope St, Hampstead Road, London. Religion: RC. Reading and Writing: Imp. Wt In: 11st 4lbs. Wt Out: 11st 0. Marks etc: Scar top of right thumb. Removed to Millbank April 1st 1868.

See also The Remains of the Manchester Martyrs.

William Allen – Yvonne Cooper – 20120406

From: “Yvonne Cooper” <yvonne.cooper@activ8.net.au>
Subject: [FENIANS] William Phillip ALLEN -fenian hung 1867 at Manchester
Date: Fri, 6 Apr 2012 12:49:03 +1000

Hi, I am researching William Philip ALLEN, one of the Manchester Martyrs. He was hung at Salford, Manchester 23 Nov 1867. I am trying to prove he was the Uncle of my grandmother-in-law as she had said. I have obtained his death certificate with his name given as William O’Mara ALLEN (same name as given on prison admittance record). I am looking for his any information about his family, his birth (about Apr 1848 near Thurles, Tipperary or possibly at Bandon, Cork), the names of his parents and his 4th brother and his sister who lived in Cork in 1867. His other three brothers were James, Joseph & Peter and they and William were converted to Roman Catholicism in 1866. His father’s name was either Henry Thomas ALLEN or Thomas ALLEN (1814?-1909?). He was a constable and later keeper of the Bridewell at Bandon, Cork from about 1851 to 1868. His father was a protestant and his mother was a Catholic Several sources state William was born in Tipperary in Apr 1848 and moved to Bandon when he was 3 years old. His speech from the dock “My name is William Philip ALLEN and I was born and reared in Bandon, Cork”. Many of the documents I have read refer to his mother, sister, aunts, cousin, and brother without mentioning their names. I have read so many documents that it is frustrating to still be missing the key names. I think I have found his sister in Cork and if I am correct she would be the Aunt of my grandmother-in-law, but I want to prove it not assume it. Any advice would be appreciated. Yvonne Cooper (Australia)

Discovery of William Allen’s Papers in Pittsburgh, Pa.

Excerpt from Paul Rose, The Manchester Martyrs (1970), p. 127

… in April, 1967, the Dungannon Observer published the following remarkable report from Pittsburgh, a city very much like Manchester on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean:

Letters of Manchester Martyrs Found in Pittsburgh, USA

William P. Allen's Farewell Messages to Family Presented to Library of Irish Center
by Tom McGuigan Jr.

I was present in the home of Mr. Robert Gariby, great grandnephew of William P. Allen, one of the three Manchester Martyrs (Allen, Larkin and O'Brien), when Mr. Gariby turned over to Dr. James McKaveney five letters which were written by Allen to members of his family on the eve of his execution. These letters will be hermetically encased, and put on permanent display in the library of the new Irish Centre in Pittsburgh, Pa.

William Allen’s Papers were donated to the University of Pittsburgh in May 1977 and may be viewed here.

The Allen Family and the Plantation of Ireland

Linehan, History of Limerick

[191] Large grants were made in the city and liberties of Limerick, and in particular in the North Liberties, to Sir William Petty, surveyor-general, for the services performed in the celebrated Down Survey under which the [192] forfeited estates were parcelled out …

[Footnote 3 – {191}: Sir William Petty by his employment in surveying the forfeited lands in Ireland after the rebellion of 1641, acquired an estate … {192} The following are other grants at this period in the City and County of Limerick: …

Edmond Allen, son and heir of Edmond Allen, deceased, obtained a grant of 77 a. in this barony [Clanwilliam].

[Note: No date is given for when the grant to Edmond Allen was “inrolled” – the range of dates for other grants is 1666 – 1669 or so]

The Boys Who Smashed the Van

Excerpt from Paul Rose, The Manchester Martyrs (1970), pp. 100- 103.

William Philip Allen, with his pale face, high cheekbones and flowing hair, had taken a leading part in the assault upon the van. Dedicated to the Fenian cause – some would say fanatically – he was quite prepared to lay down his life for its leaders. Indeed there was almost a premonition of this when he spoke to Kelly on his release: “I told you, Kelly, I would die for you before I parted with you” – or words variously reported to that effect. It was Allen whose spirited and reckless disregard for his own safety along with his colleagues made the rescue possible, and it was he who took personal responsibility for seeing that Kelly was safe before his own capture, in the course of which he was severely beaten by the mob.

Witness after witness testified that Allen appeared to lead the attack, and although he denied having fired the fatal shot there can be no doubt that this young man was a natural leader. How much his other talents might have contributed to the Fenian Movement we shall never know, but as so often is the case in revolutionary action the lead in action is taken by those who have scarcely reached manhood.

The son of a Protestant father and a Catholic mother, he was born in Tipperary but moved at a very early age to Bandon, County Cork, where his father became Bridewell keeper. His religious background must have contributed to the breadth of understanding and experience, for at one and the same time he attended regularly both Catholic and Protestant schools in Tipperary. What must again be remembered is that one of the features of Irish history smothered by divisive struggle between the Orange and the Green is that many of the great leaders in the struggle for national freedom from Wolfe Tone onwards have been Protestant and, particularly, dissenters.

But Allen himself, after attending a Catholic Mission in the town, was received into the Catholic Church by the local priest along with his sister, while his four brothers remained in the Protestant faith. Commenting on Allen and the other prisoners, Father Gadd later said, “I never had more devotional penitents in my life than the condemned Irishmen of Salford gaol.” [O’Dea, Story of the Old Faith in Manchester (1910)]

Like the great majority of Fenian supporters, he was a manual worker. The strength of the Fenian Movement “lay in the shop assistants, clerks and working men in the towns, and the agricultural labourers and small farmers in the country. The comfortable classes, the large farmers and the upper classes, were outside. But the mass of the people were with it.” [P. S. O’Hogarty, History of Ireland under the Union.]

Apprenticed as a carpenter at Bandon, Allen found work in Cork for about six months before returning home. He then went to Manchester to join some relatives and was engaged to a girl in the city at the time of his execution. He spent a few weeks in Dublin as a builder’s clerk and in the summer of 1867 he made his fateful return to Manchester. While in prison he was visited by his mother, two aunts and his fiancee, Mary Ann Hickey, who was heartbroken and desperate at the plight of young Allen.

All the indications are that he must have been one of Kelly’s close associates in Dublin, and it is no accident that in his extremity Kelly turned for help to Allen and his friends after the arrest in Oak Street. In all probability the two had been in contact before that event, particularly as Condon and O’Brien would have provided another link with Kelly.

All eyes were upon Allen during the trial, and although the strain showed upon him, all accounts bear witness to the fat that he endured not only the physical pain of his capture and subsequent handcuffing with fortitude but he mastered his feelings to a degree that all but concealed his obvious sensitivity. The recklessness of his leadership on Hyde Road was matched by his remarkable self-control in the dock and upon the scaffold. Confronting the Court upon his sentence, his speech followed the best tradition of speeches from the dock, all too often the only platform open to those Irishmen who laid down their lives for national emancipation during the years of the Union.

My Lords and Gentlemen - It is not my intention to occupy much of your time in answering your question. Your question is one that is easily asked, but requires an answer which I am ignorant of. Abler and more eloquent men could not answer it. Where were the men who have stood in the dock - Burke, Emmet and others, who have stood in the dock in defence of their country? When the question was put, what was their answer? Their answer was null and void. Now, with your permission, I will review a portion of the evidence that has been brought against me.

Interrupted by Mr. Justice Blackburne, he was told that it was too late to criticise the evidence: “If you have any reason to give why either upon technical or moral grounds, the sentence should not be passed upon you, we will hear it, but it is too late for you to review the evidence to show that it was wrong.” Allen went on:

No man in this court regrets the death of Sergeant Brett more than I do, and I positively say, in the presence of the Almighty and ever-living God, that I am innocent, aye, as innocent as any man in this court. I don't say this for the sake of mercy: I want no mercy - I'll have no mercy. I'll die, as many thousands have died, for the sake of their beloved land, and in defence of it. I will die proudly and triumphantly in defence of republican principles and the liberty of an oppressed and enslaved people. Is it possible we are asked why sentence should not be passed upon us, on the evidence of prostitutes of the streets of Manchester, fellows out of work, convicted felons - aye, an Irishman sentenced to be hanged when an English dog would have got off. I say positively and defiantly, justice has not been done me since I was arrested. If justice had been done me, I would not have been handcuffed at the preliminary investigation in Bridge Street; and in this court justice has not been done me in any shape or form. I was brought up here, and all the prisoners by my side were allowed to wear overcoats, and I was told to take mine off. What is the principle of that? There was an obvious object in that; and so I say positively that justice has not been done me. As for the prisoners, they can speak for themselves with regard to that matter.

And now with regard to the other means by which I have been identified. I have to say that my clothes were kept for four hours by the policemen in Fairfield Station, and shown to parties to identify me as being one of the perpetrators of this affair in Hyde Road. Also in Albert Station a handkerchief was kept on my head the whole night, so that I could be identified the next morning in the corridor by the witnesses. I was ordered to leave on the handkerchief so that the witnesses could more plainly see I was one of the parties alleged to have committed the outrage. As for myself, I feel the righteousness of every act with regard to what I have done in defence of my country. I have no fear. I am fearless of any punishment that can be inflicted on me. One remark more. I return Mr. Seymour and Mr. Jones my sincere and heartfelt thanks for their eloquent and able advocacy regarding my part in this affray. I wish also to return to Mr. Roberts the very same. My name, Sir, might be wished to be known. It is not William O'Meara Allen. My name is William Philip Allen. I was reared in Bandon, in the county of Cork, and from that place I take my name. I am proud of my country, and proud of my parentage. My Lords, I have done.

Forty years later Condon was to collect money for Allen’s father, who was active in the Fenian organization, although he took no part in the rescue. … [the other prisoners speak]

At this point the words were taken up by [O’Brien’s] companions in the dock. “God save Ireland” they all cried. (It was these words which were taken up in the anthem which was to remain the National Anthem of Republicans until replaced by “The Soldier’s Song”.) …

As the condemned men thanked their counsel, they looked towards the benches where their friends were seated and the only words that passes were perhaps the most moving of all: “God be with you, Irishmen and Irishwomen.”

The St. Vincent (1840)

Chapter Six
  
The ‘St. Vincent’
History

The St. Vincent was no stranger on the Australia Run, serving as an emigrant ship making voyages to Sydney in 1840, 1841, 1844 and 1849 and as a convict ship in three voyages to Sydney in 1837 and Hobart in 1850 and 1853, being the last ship to transport convicts to Tasmania (Ref 1,2.) St. Vincent was built in London in1829 (Ref. 4) , originally 410 tons and lengthened in 1844 and remeasured as 497 tons o.m. and 630 tons n.m . (Ref 1) 

Owners – Cruickshank and Co.

She was still afloat in1863.

Emigrant Ship “St.Vincent” shown here departing Deptford, England bound for Sydney, Australia (‘The Illustrated London News’, April 13th, 1844 Image No.14945) Remarkably this pen sketch records the exact moment in time that our family line seperated from its ancestral homeland.
The St. Vincent departed Deptford England on the 11th April 1844, thence to Plymouth and Cork and arrived at Botany Bay, Sydney on the 31st July 1844 (Ref. 3)
Newspaper Articles
The Shipping Gazette and Sydney general trade list; 1844
THE ST. VINCENT—by the St Vincent 263 emigrants have arrived who all appear to be in a healthy state. Of these 157 embarked at Deptford viz 8 single females, 20 single men, 30 married couples and 69 children. At Cork, 107 more were taken on board—38 single women, 22 single men, 13 married couples, and 21 children. The passage has been completed in 105 days; during which five infants under the two years of age have died, chiefly from change of climate; and four births have occurred. The vessels spoken by her on the passage had no connection with the Australian colonies. The St. Vincent departed Port Jackson for Bali, in ballast, on the 1st September.(Ref.5)
Parramatta Chronicle (3/8/1844)
The St. Vincent has had a favourable passage from Cork, arriving here in 105 days. She crossed the line 30 days after sailing; made St. Paul’s in 77 days and would have completed her voyage in 95 days, had she not been detained, when about 100 miles to the westward of Cape Otaway, ten days from light easterly winds. She has, however, arrived all in good health, having had no disease of a contagious nature on board. Five deaths occured, children under two years of age, and three births, since leaving Cork. Total number of emigrants 264, principally agriculturists, with the exception of, as high as we could ascertain, 21 or 22 mechanics, consisting of 8 stonemasons, 9 carpenters, 3 tailors, and 1 gardener. 157 were shipped at Deptford – 30 married couples, 8 single females, 20 single men, and 69 children, from 1 to 14 years of age: 107 were shipped at Cork – 13 married couples, 38 single females, 22 single men, and 21 children, from 1 to 14 years of age.
Illustrated London News (13/4/1844) (Ref. 4,6)
This Ship was also featured in several articles and sketches by the “ILN” on the 13th April 1844, the very voyage George and Sarah Verrall undertook.
Description: An ‘Illustrated London News’ engraving showing life below deck on the emigrant ship ‘St Vincent’ (1829). Once used as a convict ship, the ‘St Vincent’ sailed from Deptford on 8 April 1844 with 165 emigrants to Sydney. She stopped in the West Country and at Cork, Ireland (known as Queenstown while under British rule) to take on additional migrants. Most of these emigrants had received special government grants that subisidised settlement in the colonies. The offer was open to families, single men ‘of good character’ and a proportion of single women between eighteen and thirty, who had been in domestic or farm service. The Illustrated London News stated ‘The future well being and respectability of the colony [Australia] mainly depends on the good conduct of the working classes’.
http://www.verrallname.com/2013_01_01_archive.html
Credit line: National Maritime Museum, London

A. The hospital for females, fitted up with six bed places (one of which is prepared and devoted to accouchments.
B. The hospital for males, with four bed places.
Between A and B are 48 bed places, each 6 feet by 3 feet, for married people above, and for their children below, every one furnished with bedding, pegs for clothes, and each divided from the adjacent bed place by stout planks.
From the men’s hospital (B) a bulkhead goes across the ship to separate that part of the vessel forward, which is appropriated to the single men and youths, whose bed places number 46, and every one sleeps alone in a bed 6 feet by 2 feet.
Between C and D are 24 bed places for married people (as on the opposite side), a bulkhead then goes halfway across the deck, and runs in the amidships to the stem, enclosing the apartment of the single females, and containing 24 bed places, each 6 feet by 3 feet, as two are required to sleep together.
Along the whole of the amidships are tables with fixed seats, and beneath the tables are plate racks and battens to hold small casks containing the daily allowances of fresh water, provisions, etc.
see also download of Tales of Shipwrecks p. 787http://srwww.records.nsw.gov.au/ebook/list.asp?

Article accompanying Towing Out – ILN 18440413

Article accompanying “Towing Out” in the Illustrated London News, April 13, 1844:

It will no doubt be in the recollection of our readers that a Government grant was made to assist families and single men, agricultural labourers, shepherds, carpenters, smiths, wheelwrights, bricklayers, and masons, being of good character, to emigrate to Australia, limiting the number, we believe to five thousand. Amongst these were to be included a certain portion of single women and girls, between eighteen and thirty years of age, who had been in domestic or farm service.  Her Majesty’s Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners entrusted that important undertaking to Messrs. Carter and Bonus, of Leadenhall-street, who have been engaged for several years in the management of emigration to Australia, Canada, &c., and from what we have witnessed, it could not well be in better hands. The trust is certainly most onerous as it respects the selection of individuals to be sent out, for it must be obvious to every one that the future well-being and respectability of the colony mainly depends upon the good conduct of the working classes. There is, perhaps, something extremely melancholy at the idea of quitting our native land — perhaps for ever; the ties of kindred, the bonds of locality, cling round the heart, and true it is that absence only serves to strengthen the links that unite us to Home; for in whatever part of the world an Englishman may be, he still looks with ardent affection and longing desire to the spot of his nativity. But with all these feelings, dear and precious as they are on second consideration, there is not so much to excite painful sensation in emigration as at first there seems to be. A large field is opened for skill and industry; there is a prospect of gaining a competency which promises a “welcome return”; and unhappily there exists in England so much real distress, that anything [in the shape of improving the condition must be grateful to the feelings. Several emigrant ships, under the direction of Messrs. Carter and Bonus, and superintended on the part of the Commissioners by Lieutenant Lean, of the Royal Navy, have already sailed—some for Sydney and others for Port Phillip—and very recently one hundred and sixty-five souls, men, women and children, embarked from the depot at Deptford, on board the St. Vincent, Captain John Young, of 628 tons (registered), and sailing the following day for Plymouth, where they received all who were assembled there from the western part of England. From thence she proceeded to Cork, to take in emigrants from Ireland, and quitted that port about the 16th April, 1844, for Sydney.The ships are expressly fitted out for the purpose in the London Docks, where an active and intelligent agent is in constant attendance, and persons desirous of obtaining the advantage of a free passage must address a letter to Messrs. Carter and Bonus, stating their name, age and calling; whether married or single; and if married, the number of children. The name and address of the clergyman of the parish must also be forwarded; the period on which they will be ready to embark, and to what port of the two they are desirous of going. An answer is returned as to the eligibility of the applicants, and if they are not accepted under the bounty, a statement of terms of passage are given. Printed forms of application and testimonials are forwarded by the agents, which must be sent back for approval, together with a deposit of , one Pound for each adult, and 10 Shillings for each child between one and fourteen years of age, in payment for bedding (comprising a new mattress, bolsters, blankets, and coverlids), a small box, fifteen inches square for clothes, a knife and fork, two spoons, a metal plate, and a drinking-mug — all of which becomes the property of the emigrant on their arrival at the colony. They have also the free use of water-casks, and many necessary culinary articles. In the event of the passage not being granted the deposit is returned.
On being accepted, every male must provide himself with two suits of outside clothes, two pairs of strong boots or shoes, eight shirts, six pairs of worsted stockings, three towels etc.; and each female, besides outward garments, must possess a cloak and a bonnet. Those who desire comfort will also supply themselves with sheets and many little articles for essential use. The between decks of the St. Vincent are 124 feet in length, the breadth at the main hatchway twenty-five feet three inches, the height from the deck that is walked upon to the deck overhead is six feet four inches. From the stern of the ship, right away to the stern on the larboard side, and back again to the stern on the starboard side, the space is entirely occupied by a double tier (one above the other) of standing bed places &c. according to the annexed plan. On the day before the departure of the St. Vincent from London Dock, between one and two o’clock, we witnessed the spectacle of the emigrants taking their first meal on board (good mutton, beef, potatoes, and soup), and it certainly was a most interesting scene. The married people were very decently attired, though not so much as the single, for in several instances, among the latter, both male and female, there were indications of gentility in dress and manners that caused surprise. Many had travelled long distances and, most had never before seen a ship; yet there was a display of cheerfulness that was remarkable – as if their minds were made up for whatever might betide, or that the novelty of their situations had produced an excitement, which cheered them in the hour of parting from their home, shores, and the friends they loved. Mothers were sitting giving nourishment to their infants—all were cheerful—and perhaps a more healthy and robust set of boys and girls could not well be found. The principal portion of the youths and single men were also fine athletic fellows. Among the unmarried females were several really handsome countenances and good figures. If there is any gallantry at Sydney, where, it is stated, there are 15,000 males, and not more than between 3,000 and 4,000 females, many we beheld cannot be long after they arrived without husbands. There was not the remotest indication of want or pauperism amongst the whole. One married woman, extremely handsome, was rather elegantly arrayed; she was tall and graceful, and her fashionable apparel set off her figure to great advantage. Her husband, a quiet, inoffensive-looking man, habited as a mechanic, but very neat and clean, glanced at his wife with solicitude and anxiety. Here was ample scope for the speculative mind; but what was their former history, there was not time to enquire.

We give the following statement of weekly allowance made to each adult during the voyage, the children being on half allowance. (The provisions, of course, are served out daily).

4 ¾ lbs of bread, 1lb rib beef, 1 ½ lb flour, ½ lb raisins, 6 oz suet, 1 pint of peas, ½ lb of rice, ½ lb of preserved potatoes, 1 oz tea, 1 ½ oz roasted coffee, ¾ lb sugar, 6 oz butter, 5 gallons and 1 quart of water, a gill pickled cabbage, ½ gill of vinegar, 2 oz salt.

This taken singly, is adequate food, but when united in messes (say of ten) where appetites are not equal, is certainly not bad living, and we have not heard of any complaints. After the emigrants have arrived in the colony, they are allowed ten days free access to the ship, with all its advantages, should they not be hired or obtain employ at once. The number of emigrants the St. Vincent will convey is about 240, and from the general characteristic of those we saw on board, they will prove a valuable acquisition to the colony.

The St. Vincent appeared to be a fine vessel, well found and may the Almighty prosper her voyage!]

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Emigration to Sydney, Towing Out
Emigration to Sydney, Towing Out - Emigrants at Dinner
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Read more about the St. Vincent.

The Emigrant Ship

The Emigrant Ship
Thou semblance of the Angel Death,
With thy dark dismal shrouding wings,
Whose fluttering seems to catch the breath,
The very latest breath that wrings
The soul from body, thou art there
Like Hope, half soothing wild Despair!

In thee is promise that thou’ll bring
A change of season to the mind
Of those who chance a distant spring
For the dull wintry waste behind!
Yet – what’s the wintry waste they leave?
Alas! all hearts with theirs must grieve!

They quit their Native Land for life,
A land they’ll weep for when away,
Sister and Brother- Husband – Wife
May never meet another day!
The living Death of absence, quite
Obscures the gloom of endless night!

Perchance to some hope will be true
And lead them on to riches – fame –
But all they loved, and all they knew
In early days, just like a name
Upon a tombstone will appear,
And memory, vainly, wish them near.

Some may return with power to bless
The weeping wretches left behind –
And see that home all loneliness,
Where they expected them to find!
The son for mother look in vain,
Then seek the wide-wide world again!

The signal’s given – away to shore –
Break ties of every dearest kind! –
One parting kiss – one look – one more
Farewell to those now left behind!
Divorcer Ocean! Thou dost make
Many a gentle heart to ache!

Oh! Emigration! Thou’rt the curse
Of our once happy nation’s race!
Cannot our Fatherland still nurse
Its offspring without taking place
Of dislocated men to make
More cause for thy disturbing sake?

Thou art an enemy to peace,
Thy restless hope but ends in grief –
When comforts in the mother cease
How can we hope step-dame’s relief?*
“Better to bear the ills we have”
Than seek in foreign climes a grave!

W.

* “Dulcior mater quam noverea!” is a maxim which it ought to be our native land’s endeavour to instil into the minds of those discontented with home.

This poem appears in the Illustrated London News, April 13, 1844, and in The Emigrant Ship – Tales of shipwrecks and adventures at sea (1846), pp. 787 – 788.