A Survey of Robinson’s Settlers – 1828

In 1823 and 1825, the British government assisted over 2,500 poor men, women and children from the south of Ireland to relocate to the backwoods of Upper Canada. The architect and chief proponent of assisted emigration at the time was Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, Under-Secretary for War and the Colonies, who recruited Peter Robinson to assist and oversee the Irish emigrants.

Wilmot-Horton’s systematic approach to documenting and evaluating his “experimental” emigrations is exemplified in his wide-ranging survey of 180 Irish settlers in the Bathurst and Newcastle Districts of Upper Canada in 1828. The settlers’ personal accounts, offered in response to this survey, have gone virtually unnoticed for nearly two centuries – indeed, some historians have doubted that they ever existed at all!

Happily I came upon the settlers’ responses in the Sir Robert Wilmot Horton fonds in the Library and Archives of Canada. To learn more about Wilmot-Horton’s survey, and to view the settlers’ responses, please visit Peannairi.

The Robinson Emigrations

My own research has concentrated on the assisted emigration of poor people from the South of Ireland to Upper Canada in 1823 and 1825—ambitious socio-economic experiments designed by Robert John Wilmot-Horton and supervised by Peter Robinson. My father’s ancestors were recruited from Mitchelstown, Co. Cork for Robinson’s second emigration and were located in Douro Township, U. C. in 1825. As there was a tremendous interest and even controversy surrounding Wilmot-Horton’s bold plans for assisted emigration, the historical records of Robinson’s expeditions—both in Great Britain and in Canada—is extraordinarily rich and varied.

Allen’s Upper Canada Sundries is first setting about to aggregate—and curate—these historical records. Visit often, to see how we’re doing!

The Allen Family’s Roots in Ireland

Among the estimated fifty thousand Irish People who had applied to the British Government for assistance to emigrate to Upper Canada in 1825, there was “not one family whose appearance gives better hopes of their becoming useful Settlers” than the family of Bridget (née Fleming) and Edmond Allen from Brigown, Co. Cork.  We discovered this testimonial recently in a published transcript of the Ticket of Passage which Peter Robinson,  the superintendent of the assisted emigration, had issued to the Allen family in Mitchelstown on the 12th April 1825. [1]

The Allen family’s Ticket of Passage lists ten individuals: husband and wife, Edmond (39) and Bridget (38), their six children, John (19), William (17), Mary (14), Edmond (7), Robert (5), and Bridget (3), as well as Bridget’s father, John Fleming (66), and her niece, Bridget Johnson (11).

The Allen family was by no means the largest party to have traveled with Robinson – even after Bridget had given birth to a daughter, Johanna, while still at sea – but the Allen family was unique in spanning three generations. John Fleming was the oldest person admitted by Robinson, and was well over the official age limit of 45 years to qualify for Government assistance. Robinson defended his selection of a few “aged men and women” – like Fleming – as “farmers of superior intelligence and character … and greater practical knowledge” – predicting that they would be “of great service, by their influence and advice, in keeping up order, temperance and kindliness among the Settlers, and in repressing discontent, insobriety and contention.” [2]

The Allen family – by virtue of their connection with John Fleming – had been sponsored for assistance by the Earl of Kingston, the largest landowner in the vicinity of Brigown and Mitchelstown. We believe Fleming had been a long-standing tenant of Kingston’s, and he was second on a list of 61 heads of families (amounting to 400 individuals) who were admitted as Emigrant Settlers from Kingston’s Estates. Local Magistrates and Clergymen certified that these families were “totally unable to pay for their own passages to America, and come within the description of persons deemed fit subjects for Emigration to Canada, being persons without employment, and generally bred to agriculture, and who have lately been dispossessed of their land.” [3]

Descendants of Bridget and Edmond Allen still live and farm in Douro Township. My father, Bernard, was born there on Christmas Day 1926 to Mary (née Moher) and Joseph Allen. Dad passed away on All Souls Day in 1990,  two weeks before my son Jack’s first birthday. Steps from my father’s grave in St. Joseph’s Cemetery in Douro, stands the tombstone, of my great-great-great-great-grandfather.

Edmond Allen’s tombstone in St. Joseph’s Cemetery reveals that he, too, was one of the “aged men” among Robinson’s Emigrant Settlers – being, in fact, 51 or 52 years old in 1825 – and not 39, as recorded on his Ticket of Passage. Edmond’s tombstone also indicates that he was a native of Galbally, Co. Limerick, where we find a baptismal record for his daughter Mary Allen (b. 1812) in nearby Knocklong. In fact, our family has received three separate accounts of Mary Allen’s baptismal certificate from officials in Ireland over the years – accounts that are not entirely consistent, but that seem to indicate that Edmond Allen worked as a publican and resided in Raheen or Ballinlong in 1812. [5] Mary Allen’s baptismal certificate is the only one for members of her immediate family to be found in Co. Limerick – her older brothers, John and William, were born before 1809, when baptismal records begin in that region of Co. Limerick. The baptisms of the three younger Allen children who emigrated to Upper Canada, Edmond Allen Jr. (b. 1819), Robert Allen (b. 1821), and Bridget Allen (b. 1823) were registered in Mitchelstown, Co. Cork.

Until recently, we could date the Allen family’s move to join John Fleming on Lord Kingston’s estate no more precisely than the seven plus years between Mary’s baptism in Knocklong and Edmond Jr.’s baptism in Mitchelstown.  Thus, it was not only especially poignant, but hugely informative, to discover that another daughter, Judith Allen (b. 1816), had been baptized in Mitchelstown, several years before Edmond Jr. [5] This discovery has nearly halved the uncertainty surrounding the Allen family’s move to Mitchelstown. Judith’s baptismal record is also invaluable for it locates the Allen family in the Townland of Clounlough in 1816.

According to affidavits sworn by Bridget Allen, Patrick Sullivan, and Michael Sullivan in Upper Canada in 1842, [5] John Fleming had only two children, Bridget and Mary. Mary Fleming married Roger Johnson and had two daughters herself, Catherine (b. 18??) and Bridget (b. 1814), before she died around 1818. We have been unable to establish the date or circumstance of Mary Fleming’s death. There is also an unfortunate gap in the baptismal records in Mitchelstown between 1802-1814 – and we have been unable to locate baptismal certificates for either of Mary Fleming’s daughters. We did, however, locate a baptismal certificate in Mitchelstown for an older daughter, Mary Johnson (b. 1800), who is not mentioned in Bridget Allen’s affidavits, and who may well have died in childhood. Mary Johnson’s baptism is further evidence that John Fleming’s family had long been established Mitchelstown. The likelihood that both Bridget Fleming and Mary Johnson had named their first daughter Mary, taken together with traditional Irish naming rules, suggests that John Fleming’s wife was also named Mary.

And finally, we learn from Bridget Allen’s affidavits that she lost touch with her one niece, Catherine Johnson, who had remained in Ireland, around 1831, and that her other niece, Bridget Johnson, moved to the United States in the mid-1830s. Patrick Sullivan’s affidavit indicates that he knew John Fleming back in Ireland in the early 1810s, and Michael Sullivan’s affidavit indicates that John Fleming died in Douro in 1833.

 

[1] Any account of the early history of the Allen family in Upper Canada must begin by acknowledging the contribution of the late Ivan Kinshella, formerly of Detroit, Michigan, who spent part of his summer vacations in Ontario over many, many years researching our people. Mr. Kinshella donated a copy of the “Allen Family Tree” to the Peterborough Public Library in 1995.

The Peter Robinson Papers, held at the Peterborough Museum and Archives, contain a wealth of original material related to the business of transporting, locating and provisioning the Emigrant Settlers (e.g. Tickets of Passage that were issued to families as they were hand-picked by Robinson), as well as other documents of a more personal nature(e.g. Letters of Recommendation that were written for prospective Emigrants by public officials and religious leaders who knew them at least well enough to attest to their passable character and reduced circumstances). After resigning ourselves to the fact that the Peter Robinson Papers contain neither a Letter of Recommendation nor a Ticket of Passage for the Allen family, we discovered that a local authority on the Robinson emigration had transcribed the Allen family’s Ticket in one of his earliest works (see Howard Pammett, “Assisted Emigration from Ireland to Upper Canada in 1825,” Papers and Records, Ontario Historical Society, vol. xxxi, 1936, pp. 182 – 183). The original copy of the Allen family’s Ticket went missing sometime between the mid-1930s, when Pammett was researching his Master’s thesis, and the mid-1950s, when the Archives of Ontario photographed the remaining Peter Robinson Papers at the urging of Edwin Guillet, a leading authority on the pioneer settlement of Upper Canada.

[2] Peter Robinson 1827 report.

[3] Correspondence of 17 May 1825, Peter Robinson to R. J. Wilmot-Horton, Colonial Office – Original Correspondence, Second Emigration to Canada, MG11-C.O. 384/13. Available in the Library and Archives Canada, Reel B-885, ff. 191 – 196.

[4] The discrepancies among these accounts of Mary Allen’s baptismal certificate highlight the caution one must exercise when relying on secondhand reports, even when these reports come from authorized sources.

[5] We have found no other reference to Judith Allen, and it seems likely she did not survive her childhood. Unfortunately, there are no extant death certificates for Roman Catholics in north Cork during the nineteenth century.

[6] In 1840, John Allen, the eldest son of Edmond and Bridget Allen, filed a claim with the Second Heir and Devisee Commission for the parcel of land that Robinson had originally granted to Bridget’s father, John Fleming, who had died in 1833. The history of John Fleming’s family is taken from an undated affidavit, sworn by Bridget Allen (on or around May 1842) in support of her son’s claim; in an accompanying affidavit, one Patrick Sullivan swore that he knew Fleming from around 1812, and confirmed the same family history. See Second Heir and Devisee Commission, John Allan, RG-40 Parcel 74:1842; Archives of Ontario, microfilm MS-657 Reel 49. Among Robinson’s Settlers there were several other heads of families who died intestate or their wills were lost, and their heirs (generally their eldest sons) had to apply to the Commission to establish the legitimacy of the claim to their family’s original grant of 100 acres of land in the Newcastle District.

Works of Rev. William Bell

The Rev. William Bell (1780 – 1857) is best known from his extensive diaries and his “Hints to Emigrants” – a collection of letters from Upper Canada published in 1824. Fifteen volumes of Bell’s original diaries repose in the Douglas Library at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario. Our latest publication, “Diaries and Hints to Emigrants” begins with a two volume digest of Bell’s diaries, which he produced around 1845 – 1849, and concludes with the complete “Hints to Emigrants”, including three letters written by Bell’s eldest son, Andrew.

Naming Practices in Ireland

Anyone who keeps at genealogy long enough will pick up many tricks of the trade – and perhaps a pretty good sense of their reliability. One source of promising leads in genealogical research is onomastics – the study of naming patterns. Researchers have proposed various “traditions” of child-naming in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Ireland.

Sons

There is general agreement among folklorists and researchers (Baxter, 19xx; de Breffny, 1969; ffolliott, 1986; Robb, 2012) that the first four sons in a family were named in order after the father’s father, the mother’s father, the father, and the father’s eldest brother. Some writers suggest there is no rule for naming the fifth son, some claim he was to be named after his mother’s eldest brother, others give the honor to the father’s second eldest brother.

Daughters

There is less agreement about whether any rules applied to naming daughters. Many writers believe that daughters and sons were named according to the same system, though with daughters the mother’s family took precedence – that is, the first four daughters were named in order after the mother’s mother, the father’s mother, the mother, and the mother’s eldest sister. As with sons, some of these writers suggest there is no rule for naming the fifth daughter, some claim she was to be named after the father’s eldest sister, others say the mother’s second eldest sister.

Duplication

If a pattern would result in a duplication of names – e.g. both grandfathers had the same name – then one would skip to the next name on the list.

Death

Should a child die, the child’s name was quite liable to be used for the next born child of the same sex.

Summary

At the risk of over-simplification, the following rules likely reflect a genuine tradition of child-naming among the Irish:

Child Namesake
First son Father’s father
Second son Mother’s father
Third son Father
Fourth son Father’s eldest brother
Fifth son Mother’s eldest brother
First daughter Mother’s mother
Second daughter Father’s mother
Third daughter Mother
Fourth daughter Mother’s eldest sister
Fifth daughter Father’s eldest sister

 

Further reading

Baxter, A – In Search of Your British & Irish Roots: A Complete Guide to Tracing Your English, Welsh, Scottish & Irish Ancestors, 1999.

DeBreffny, B – Christian Names in Ireland – Irish Ancestor – 1969

FFolliott, R – Irish Naming Practices Before the Famine – Irish Ancestor – 1986

Przecha, D – The Importance of Given Names – Genealogy.com 20120707

Robb, JB – The Scottish Onomastic Child-Naming Pattern – 2012

 

 

Medical Journals of Robinson’s Surgeons

In the Spring of 1825, nine transports sailed from the Cove of Cork, carrying over 2000 Irish paupers to be settled in the backwoods of Upper Canada. Responsibility for the success of this enterprise fell to Peter Robinson (1785 – 1838), who had conducted a similar experiment on a smaller scale in 1823. Robinson was aided by a team of medical officer s— one of whom was assigned to each of the ships hired for the trans-Atlantic passage.

Medical journals kept by these medical officers have been preserved in the National Archives, and summaries have been published recently with the generous support of the Wellcome Trust.

Prior to the publication of these summaries, we had undertaken to transcribe these medical journals in their entirety — a task made challenging not only by the near illegibility of the typical doctor’s handwriting, but also by the surgeon’s common resort to Latin abbreviations and arcane symbols when prescribing a host of largely unfamiliar medicines for a range of maladies that are unrecognized by modern medicine.

Original transcripts of the following medical journals are available online for the Kindle and Kobo readers:

Albion John Thomson, R. N.
Amity James McTernan, R. N.
Brunswick John Tarn, R. N.
Elizabeth Pierce Power, R. N.
Fortitude Francis Connin, R. N.
John Barry William Burnie, R. N.
Regulus Matthew Burnside, R. N.
Resolution George Hume Reade
Star Ninian McMorris, R. N.

 

 

 

 

 

History of Prescott – 1896

In 1896, Cyrus Thomas published a substantial history of Argenteuil, Quebec and neighbouring Prescott, Ontario. Thomas had intended originally “to give biographical sketches of only the very early pioneers and those who, in different ways, had become prominently identified with the history of the two Counties. But he found it difficult to choose from among so many worthy pioneers and eventually decided to expand his interests to include the ancestors of anyone who would subscribe to purchase his book! For all its faults and eccentricities, Thomas’s voluminous work provides a wealth of information and anecdote about the settlements that straddled the border between Lower and Upper Canada.

Registered users may soon download Thomas’s History of the Counties of Argenteuil, Que and Prescott, Ont from the Earliest Settlement to the Present (1896).

Emigration and Colonization

Over the first half of the nineteenth century, Great Britain had acquired strategic naval bases and had expanded her trading interests around the world. At the same time, she had developed her “colonies of settlement” in Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. These, like the parts of the Empire devoted more specifically to trading, were thought of as sources of power and prestige. Even more important, they were appreciated as suitable destinations for “redundant” workers and their families who were leaving England, Scotland and Ireland in ever-growing numbers.


Even before the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, Lord Selkirk, Robert Semple and Colonel Talbot had undertaken settlement schemes in Canada; and after the peace, many ex-soldiers were given land there, and ex-officers could obtain grants in New South Wales.

In 1819, Parliament voted £50,000 for emigration to the Cape (the result was the settlement at Albany in the east of the province). In 1820-21, over 3,000 Scots, including 1,200 weavers from Glasgow, were assisted to emigrate; and in 1821, 1823, 1824, and 1827 Parliament made further grants to assist emigration from Ireland, one result being Peter Robinson’s settlement in Canada. In 1826, the Canada Land Company, backed by able propaganda from John Galt, set a precedent which others were to follow for company colonization. Its object was to provide “access to the settlement of land  by a steady industrious agricultural population” by buying waste and uncleared land, preparing it, developing communications, and making advances to the settlers.

The cause of emigration and colonization was supported by official publicists like Robert John Wilmot-Horton, the novelist John Galt, and the controversialist R. F. Gourlay in Canada, by the fiery Presbyterian John Dunmore Lang in Australia, by Archbishop Whately in Ireland, by G. Poulett Scrope, Herman Merivale, and many others in England.

Alphabetical Listing

Arnold, T., The Effects of Distant Colonization on the Parent State, (London, 1815).*

Barton, J., A Statement of the Consequences Likely to Ensue from Our Growing Excess of Population, if not Remedied by Colonization, (London, 1830).*

Buchanan, A. C., Emigration Practically Considered; with Detailed Directions to Emigrants Proceeding to British North America, Particularly to the Canadas; in a Letter to Rt. Hon. Wilmot Horton M. P., (London, 1828).*

Buckingham, J. S., Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Other British Provinces in North America, with a Plan of National Colonization, (London, 1843).*

Colquhoun, P.,Propositions for Ameliorating the Condition of the Poor, (London, 1812).*

Cookesley, W. G., Colonization: A Lecture Delivered at the Windsor and Eton Literary, Scientific, and Mechanics Institution, (Windsor, 1849).*

English, J., No Emigration: The Testimony of Experience before a Committee of Agriculturists and Manufacturers on the Report of the Emigration Committee of the House of Commons, (London, 1828).*

Finch, J., The Natural Boundaries of Empires; and a New View of Colonization, (London, 1844).*

Fitzgerald, J., A Plan of Settlement and Colonization, Adapted to all the British North American Provinces, (Toronto, 1850).*

Grece, C. F., Facts and Observations Respecting Canada, and the United States of America: Affording a Comparative View of the Inducements to Emigration Presented to those Countries, to which is added An Appendix of Practical Instructions to Emigrant Settlers in the British Colonies, (London, 1819).*

Hayter, W. G., Proposals for the Redemption of the Poor Rates, by Means of Emigration, (London, 1817).*

Head, F. B., The Emigrant, 3rd edition, (London, 1846).*

Huskisson, W., Substance of Two Speeches … Respecting the Colonial Policy and Foreign Commerce of the Country, (London, 1825).*

Merivale, H., A Course of Lectures on Colonization and Colonies; Begun in March 1839 {Introduction and Two Volumes], (London, 1839, 1841, 1842).*

Mills, A., Systematic Colonization, (London, 1847).*

Monteagle, Lord, The Necessity and Consequences of Colonization; Extracted from Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates, (London, 1848).*

National Society for the Cure and Prevention of Pauperism by Means of Systematic Colonization, A Statement of Principles and Objects, (London, 1830).*

Porter, G. R., The Progress of the Nation, in its Various Social and Economic Relations, from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Time, (London, 1836).*

Rational Tract Society, National Evils and National Remedies; Foreign Trade versus Home Colonization, (London, 1843).*

Roebuck, J. A., The Colonies of England: A Plan for the Government of Some Portions of Our Colonial Possessions, (London, 1849).*

Rolph, T., A Descriptive and Statistical Account of Canada: Shewing Its Great Adaptation for British Emigration, 2nd edition, (London, 1841).*

Rolph, T., Emigration and Colonization; Embodying the Results of a Mission to Great Britain and Ireland During the Years 1839, 1840, 1841 and 1842, (London, 1844).*

Scrope, G. P., Plan of a Poor-Law for Ireland: With a Review of the Arguments For and Against It, (London, 1833).*

Society for the Promotion of Colonization, Report of the General Committee, (London, 1850).*

Strachan, J. A Visit to the Province of Upper Canada in 1819, (Aberdeen, 1820).*

Stuart, C., The Emigrant’s Guide to Upper Canada; or Sketches of the Present State of that Province, Collected from a Residence Therein During the Years 1817, 1818, 1819, (London, 1820).*

Tennant, C., Letters [to N. W. Senior] Concerning Systematic Colonization and the Bill Now Before Parliament for Promoting Emigration; also, A Letter to the Canada Land Company, (London, 1831).*

Torrens, R., Colonization of South Australia, (London, 1835).*

Torrens, R., A Letter and a Memorial [to Rt. Hon. Lord John Russell], (London, 1842).*

Torrens, R. A Letter [to Sir Robert Peel] on the Condition of England and on the Means of Removing the Causes of Distress, (London, 1843).*

Torrens, R., Self-Supporting Colonization; Ireland Saved Without Cost to the Imperial Treasury, (London, 1847).*

Wakefield, E. G., A View of the Art of Colonization, with Present Reference to the British Empire; in Letters Between a Statesman and a Colonist, (London, 1849).*

Whately, R., Review of Three Works Respecting Emigration to Canada see Grece, C. F. (1819), Stuart, C. (1820), and Strachan, J. (1820), (London, 1820).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., The Causes and Remedies of Pauperism in the United Kingdom [Introduction & Four Parts], (London, 1830, 1831).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., Ireland and Canada; Supported by Local Evidence, (London, 1839).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., Robinson, J. B., Correspondence … Upon the Subject of a Pamphlet Lately Published, Entitled “Ireland and Canada”, (London, 1839).*

Wilson, F. A., Richards, A. B., Britain Redeemed and Canada Preserved, (London, 1850).*

Chronological Listing

Colquhoun, P.,Propositions for Ameliorating the Condition of the Poor, (London, 1812).*

Arnold, T., The Effects of Distant Colonization on the Parent State, (London, 1815).*

Hayter, W. G., Proposals for the Redemption of the Poor Rates, by Means of Emigration, (London, 1817).*

Grece, C. F., Facts and Observations Respecting Canada, and the United States of America: Affording a Comparative View of the Inducements to Emigration Presented to those Countries, to which is added An Appendix of Practical Instructions to Emigrant Settlers in the British Colonies, (London, 1819).*

Strachan, J. A Visit to the Province of Upper Canada in 1819, (Aberdeen, 1820).*

Stuart, C., The Emigrant’s Guide to Upper Canada; or Sketches of the Present State of that Province, Collected from a Residence Therein During the Years 1817, 1818, 1819, (London, 1820).*

Whately, R., Review of Three Works Respecting Emigration to Canada – see Grece, C. F. (1819), Stuart, C. (1820), and Strachan, J. (1820), (London, 1820).*

Huskisson, W., Substance of Two Speeches … Respecting the Colonial Policy and Foreign Commerce of the Country, (London, 1825).*

Buchanan, A. C., Emigration Practically Considered; with Detailed Directions to Emigrants Proceeding to British North America, Particularly to the Canadas; in a Letter to Rt. Hon. Wilmot Horton M. P., (London, 1828).*

English, J., No Emigration: The Testimony of Experience before a Committee of Agriculturists and Manufacturers on the Report of the Emigration Committee of the House of Commons, (London, 1828).*

Barton, J., A Statement of the Consequences Likely to Ensue from Our Growing Excess of Population, if not Remedied by Colonization, (London, 1830)*.

National Society for the Cure and Prevention of Pauperism by Means of Systematic Colonization, A Statement of Principles and Objects, (London, 1830).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., The Causes and Remedies of Pauperism in the United Kingdom [Introduction & Four Parts], (London, 1830, 1831).*

Tennant, C., Letters [to N. W. Senior] Concerning Systematic Colonization and the Bill Now Before Parliament for Promoting Emigration; also, A Letter to the Canada Land Company, (London, 1831).*

Scrope, G. P., Plan of a Poor-Law for Ireland: With a Review of the Arguments For and Against It, (London, 1833).*

Torrens, R., Colonization of South Australia, (London, 1835).*

Porter, G. R., The Progress of the Nation, in its Various Social and Economic Relations, from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Time, (London, 1836).*

Merivale, H., A Course of Lectures on Colonization and Colonies; Begun in March 1839 [Introduction and Two Volumes], (London, 1839, 1841, 1842).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., Ireland and Canada; Supported by Local Evidence, (London, 1839).*

Wilmot-Horton, R. J., Robinson, J. B., Correspondence … Upon the Subject of a Pamphlet Lately Published, Entitled “Ireland and Canada”, (London, 1839).*

Rolph, T., A Descriptive and Statistical Account of Canada: Shewing Its Great Adaptation for British Emigration, 2nd edition, (London, 1841).*

Torrens, R., A Letter and a Memorial [to Rt. Hon. Lord John Russell], (London, 1842).*

Buckingham, J. S., Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Other British Provinces in North America, with a Plan of National Colonization, (London, 1843).*

Rational Tract Society, National Evils and National Remedies; Foreign Trade versus Home Colonization, (London, 1843).*

Torrens, R. A Letter [to Sir Robert Peel] on the Condition of England and on the Means of Removing the Causes of Distress, (London, 1843).*

Finch, J., The Natural Boundaries of Empires; and a New View of Colonization, (London, 1844).*

Rolph, T., Emigration and Colonization; Embodying the Results of a Mission to Great Britain and Ireland During the Years 1839, 1840, 1841 and 1842, (London, 1844).*

Head, F. B., The Emigrant, 3rd edition, (London, 1846).*

Mills, A., Systematic Colonization, (London, 1847).*

Torrens, R., Self-Supporting Colonization; Ireland Saved Without Cost to the Imperial Treasury, (London, 1847).*

Monteagle, Lord, The Necessity and Consequences of Colonization; Extracted from Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates, (London, 1848).*

Cookesley, W. G., Colonization: A Lecture Delivered at the Windsor and Eton Literary, Scientific, and Mechanics Institution, (Windsor, 1849).*

Roebuck, J. A., The Colonies of England: A Plan for the Government of Some Portions of Our Colonial Possessions, (London, 1849).*

Wakefield, E. G., A View of the Art of Colonization, with Present Reference to the British Empire; in Letters Between a Statesman and a Colonist, (London, 1849).*

Fitzgerald, J., A Plan of Settlement and Colonization, Adapted to all the British North American Provinces, (Toronto, 1850).*

Society for the Promotion of Colonization, Report of the General Committee, (London, 1850).*

Wilson, F. A., Richards, A. B., Britain Redeemed and Canada Preserved, (London, 1850).*

 

Concentration of Scots in Rural Southern Ontario

Abstract: The location quotient is used as a method of analysis to determine concentrations of Scots in Southern Ontario during the period 1851 to 1901. Although changes in census district boundaries do not allow exact comparisons, a definite distributional pattern emerges showing a marked concentration of Scots in Southwestern Ontario and their relative absence from Eastern Ontario, an anomaly explained in terms of the earlier settlement of eastern districts and the process of out-migration.

Soon available in for registered users to download.

Source: Clarke, J., MacLeod, P. K., “Concentration of Scots in Rural Southern Ontario,” The Canadian Cartographer, vol. 11, no. 2, December 1974, pp. 107 – 113.